Online Teaching: Tools & Projects

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MUDs, MOOs, WOOs and IRC

A. What Are These 'TLAs'?

These strange looking TLAs (three letter acronyms) stand for Multi-User Dimension (or Dungeon), MUD Object Oriented (or Multi-user Object Oriented), WOO (WEB Object Oriented or ‘W3 + MOO’) and Internet Relay Chat, respectively. The most significant difference between these and other modes of Internet-based communication is that 'events' (such as replying to what someone has written) happen in 'real-time', that is they are primarily synchronous modes. This paradigm has a number of consequences, for better or worse, that make communication somewhat different from the more 'static' modes, such as email and newsgroups. This section will concentrate primarily on MUDs and MOOs and WOOs, since they appear to be the most appropriate for teaching.

B. What Is A MUD/MOO?

MUDs and MOOS are multi-user text-based virtual realities accessible via the Internet. MUDs evolved from multi-user interactive role-playing games on the Internet (hence ‘Dungeon’, from the ‘Dungeons and Dragons’ role-playing game). In 1989, an innovative student (James Aspnes) at Carnegie Mellon University decided to see what would happen if you took the gaming part, including any notions of 'scoring' and killing other 'players' (i.e. users), out of the equation. Thanks to his efforts and those of Pavel Curtis (at XeroxParc) with LamdaMOO(1), MUDs have become more of a communication toola shared environment where diverse groups of people can go to talk, create and collaborate. The possibilities such a tool offers for education have not been ignored. The MOO variant in particular has proved highly popular for educational purposes, since it includes a powerful built-in programming language that can be used to create entirely new objects, extending the MOO virtual-world. This ability to create objects and extend the "virtual community" is not just limited to the MOO's original creators. Indeed, the ability of users to construct new objects is arguably as important as the ability to perform group communication, a point which some educators have not always grasped.

C. Basic MUD/MOO Concepts

Some of the central properties of MUDs and MOOs that make them different from other kinds of Virtual Realities (Curtis, 1992(2)):

Implied by these properties is that they employ a spatial organizational metaphorpeople typically interact with other people or objects within ‘rooms’.

D. The Textual Model

Although MOOs are primarily text-based environments, it is possible (though not all that straightforward or necessarily desirable) to 'bolt-on' graphical front ends e.g. using a 3-D VRML environment Diversity University is one MOO that is experimenting with this(3):

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Fig 1. VRML-enhanced MOO

However, just because it is now possible today to make ‘virtual worlds’ using complicated graphics, it is not necessarily desirable, technically or pedagogically. The simplicity with which users can describe themselves and the objects they create is one of the great strengths of MUDs. A richly detailed environment can be described with a few lines of text. In order to produce an acceptable graphical representation of the same environment, much greater effort would have to be applied by the user (Curtis, 1992). In fact this effort may even be wasted (unless you're a graphic designer), as textual ‘play’ and the use of imagination is arguably central to the modal of learning in MUDs:

‘...the sensorial parsimony of plain text tends to entice users into engaging their imaginations to fill in missing details while, comparatively speaking, the richness of stimuli in fancy virtual realities has an opposite tendency, pushing users' imaginations into a more passive role.’ (Curtis, 1992)

This is similar to a good novel where the reader experiences alternative methods of reading/learning. For example it is possible in Diversity University's MOO to actually enter into Dante's Inferno and to experience it by interacting with the objects in it(4):

[The following is a transcript of an actual telnet session]


Home of the Wrathful and the Sullen

You have arrived at the fifth circle of hell

You shiver, there is a damp cold fog surrounding you.

In front of you is a tall stone tower, looking up you see a light flickering at the top. In the distance another flame returns the signal, it is barely visible.

On the tower is a sign.

The river styx is in front of you. A boat is approaching you. A man is at the helm of the boat. Say good evening to the boatman.

Please read the message board!

Exits include: [up] to The All You Can Eat/Pay With Your Soul Cafe, [down] to Seventh Circle, First Ring

You see sign, boatman, virgil, dante, sinner, narrator, and message board here.

It is then possible to interact with the objects therein, from the simple, such as reading a message board:

read message board

The wrathful and the sullen are doomed to the fifth circle of hell until judgement day. They lived their lives very angry and unsociably. This is evident from the encounters Virgil and Dante had at the river Styx. The boatman also known as Phlegyas was very rude to Virgil upon his entering the boat. Once on the river Flippo Argenti rises up out of the river. He angers Dante with his attitude. The wrathful and the sullen are condemned to the mud of the river for their sins on Earth. This is why Flippo is known as the sinner in his dialogue with Dante. After Dante is insulted by Flippo he wishes him harm. The other angry inhabitants of the river attack Flippo as Dante and his guide Virgil look back.

To more complex interactions with ‘virtual characters’ or ‘conversational robots’. These ‘robots’ can be programmed by users to have fixed responses to certain wordseven to words spoken by other ‘robots’! In the example of Dante's Inferno above, saying certain words triggers off a conversation (from Inferno) between the Virtual Characters. A more interactive use of a robot is at the Prototype English Resource Center at DU(5), which employs a robot, ‘Jesse’, to respond to queries about English Resources at DU:

"hi jesse

You say, "hi jesse"

"Jesse [to PaulG] says, "Hello, and welcome to the English Resource Center. I am a teachers' assistant robot here to answer your questions about English Resources on Diversity University MOO."
"Jesse [to PaulG] says, "Hello, and welcome to the English Resource Center. I am a teachers' assistant robot here to answer your questions about English Resources on Diversity University MOO."

Jesse [to PaulG] explains, "Here is a list of subjects I can help with. You only need to "say" the word that is Capitalized by itself for me to answer. Although DU, MUD and MOO are capitalized, they are not keywords. 1) *PROJECTS on DU. 2) *LEARNING about DU. 3) *TEACHING tools on DU. 4) *NETWORKING with other people on DU. 5) *RESOURCES about MUDs and education, both on DU and on the net. 6) *PEDAGOGY on the MOO. 7) *GRANTS and funding of DU.

Jesse [to PaulG] says, "Which category would you like to hear about?"

Conversational robots can (and have been) also be used for language drill vocabulary testing, tutoring or as room guides (Schweller, 1994(6)), but the possibilities are almost endless. It is possible to create many other kinds of objects and behaviours (see ‘Constructionism’ below).

E. Technology Requirements

Another obvious advantage of the textual model is the low technology requirement, at least at the client end. The lack of graphics makes MOOing a low bandwidth activity, which means that even on a slow Internet connection (such as a modem), good results can be obtained, even if connecting to a site in a different continent. This is of particular importance for remote distance learners, but also for many schools and colleges with poor connections. It also means that no expensive graphics cards or top of the range PCs are required for display purposes. The software requirement is straightforward, as it is possible to connect to a MUD/MOO using a simple telnet client (which any networked PC should have). It is true that more specialised (but still relatively unsophisticated) 'MOO & MUD Client software' (see below) can make things easier (by having separate text entry and display windows), but it is not essential and such software is easily obtainable for free.

The technology requirements for actually hosting a MUD or MOO (or WOO) server are obviously greater, but with the increasing power-to-cost ratio of today's PCs, it is now feasible to host one on an ordinary PC running Windows (preferably NT), provided it has a reasonable amount of memory (the server software documentation will usually give you an idea of how much memory is required to support each user). It is also a relatively straightforward operation to set-up a basic MOO on such as system and most server software is freely available and non-proprietary (see 'MOO Server Software' below). For larger and/or more complex MOOs, however, it is advisable that a moderately powerful UNIX machine (such as a SUN Sparc) be used, and considerable thought and planning may be required for a satisfactory MOO design. However, usually it is neither necessary, or even desirable to set up your own MOO server for teaching. Many educational MOOs offer educators and students space in which to build and extend the existing MOO. Moreover, resources created by one group of students may well be useful to others. An established MOO is also more likely to have a large existing community with all the benefits that brings for communicating, particularly for advice.

F. WOOs'Webbified' MOO Environments

'... conflict or resistance may appear in several forms. One form is the result of ill conceived expectations based on experience with rich stand-alone computer applications. This leads to statements such as, "Is that all there is?"' (Higgins, 1997(7))

Despite the caveats mentioned above about the dangers of abandoning (or at least partially replacing) the textual model of MOOs, there are some compelling arguments for creating an environment that is, at least from a student's perspective, easier to use. The quote above is very revealing students and educators used to working under fully graphical (in the sense of buttons, scrollable windows and other 'widgets') environments and likely to be alienated by the austerity of the typical text-only MOO environment. Higgins (Higgins, 1997) sees the the combination of textual-based MOO, Web front-ends and other technologies (such as VRML navigation) as an example of the use of transitional technologies. Bolting together these differing technologies is by no means a perfect solution for providing ‘environments to serve as our virtual classrooms and for co-operative learning and communication’ (Higgins, 1997). However, they have the great advantage of being available to educators now (and usually for free), as opposed to more other more ambitious virtual environment technologies just emerging.

There are a number of different ways in which Web technologies can be combined with that of MOOs to provide a useful educational environment. One recent and particularly innovative example is that of the award winning CoMentor learning environment(8). As well as providing the normal graphical navigational tools one would typically expect to find in a 'Webbified' MOO, a number of useful graphical learning aids are also provided, such as a 'concept mapping tool':

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Fig 2. Concept Mapping

From the educators/administrators point of view, things have been made easier by providing easy to use controls to manage classes, such as adding and removing users, making new areas, and logging and viewing student activity.

Educators also have extra capabilities, such as annotating students essays placed within the CoMentor system. Perhaps more importantly, 'building' activities, such as creating new rooms and objects, has also been simplified through the use of graphical controls, although this is still perhaps not as straightforward as is perhaps desirable, since it requires some manipulation of the image files outside of the CoMentor system:

The CoMentor software is available free to UK HE institutions (for further information email: Alternatively, especially if you would just like to try out the software, you can just sample the facilities provided by CoMentor by using the software as set-up at its home at the University of Huddersfield.

G. Communication, Social Interaction and Sense of Space

One of the main arguments for using MUDs/MOOs in an educational environment is the opportunity they offer for multi-participant synchronous communication over the Internet. Whilst this is also possible using IRC (Internet Relay Chat) and other synchronous protocols, MOOs also provide a sense of virtual space that mimics the real world. This metaphorical sense of ‘being somewhere’ serves a number of useful purposes. Psychologically it is important, as it makes users feel more comfortable to have common reference points and not be ‘adrift in the ether’. Moreover, Harris(9) points out that ‘(these) environments strongly influence the activities that take place there. For example, within Diversity University's virtual university campus are lounges, offices, conference rooms, classrooms, living rooms and so on, each with a different purpose and with different objects associated with them.’ Even without any additional prompting, people's conversations and modes of behaviour can be affected by the mere fact that they visualise themselves as being in a particular kind of ‘room’ talk is likely to be less formal in a ‘lounge’ than in a ‘classroom’ for example.

Whilst the virtual world of a MOO may have many of the social attributes of ‘real’ places, ‘certain attributes... however, tend to have significant effects on social phenomena, leading to new mechanisms and modes of behaviour not usually seen 'IRL' (in real life).’ (Curtis, 1992). It is generally recognised that people are more likely to talk to complete strangers in MOO then in the real world. This is most likely due to context, by participating in a MOO you are ‘implicitly assumed to be interested in conversing , unlike in most real world contexts’ (Curtis, 1992) For this reason MOOs are seen as useful places to network with other scholars and teachers in related fields for example in MediaMOO(10) you can read descriptions of people's research interests as well as their names (Bruckman, 1995(11)). In most MOOs, however, a persons real identity is not usually openly available for all to discover - anonymity is the norm, a person is only defined by his/her chosen textual description. This can make MOOs a useful 'safe' place to discuss potentially 'difficult' or sensitive topics, such as homosexual parenting or issues of religion or race.

The practice of anonymity in MOOs has other interesting consequences. In a MOO, someone is only ‘known by what they explicitly project and are not ‘locked into’ any factors beyond their easy control’ (Curtis, 1992). Thus factors such as race, personal appearance, disability and gender need not be revealed, reducing the possibilities of prejudiced assumptions about a person and restraining physical factors (such as a quiet voice). This may be one of the reasons why students who are normally quiet and non-participators in a real world classroom often become much more active in a MOO class. Women in particular are reported to benefit from this situation. There can however be a different kind of discrimination those who ‘type fastest speak loudest’ (May 10, 1995 DU MOO log(12)).

H. Building Objects

As well as providing a sense of space and identity, MOOs have another major advantage over other forms of synchronous communication - the capability for users to construct objects and extend the MOO. This capacity gives MOOs not just a shared context, but also the opportunity for shared activity. This can be contrasted with, for example, browsing the Web, which tends to be a much more passive (and solitary) activity. Amy Bruckman (Bruckman, 1995) points out that the capability build in MOOs is an example of constructionalist ideas applied to virtual reality design:

‘The term 'constructionism,' first coined by Seymour Papert, involves two types of construction. First, it asserts that learning is an active process, in which people actively construct knowledge from their experiences in the world. (This idea is based on the theories of Jean Piaget.) To this, constructionism adds the idea that people construct new knowledge with particular effectiveness when they are engaged in constructing personally-meaningful products. They might be constructing sand castles, LEGO machines, computer programs, or virtual objects. What's important is that they are actively engaged in creating something that is meaningful to themselves and to others around them.’

Bruckman actively endorses this constructionalist viewpoint, arguing that everyone in MOO should be allowed to create new objects, something that some MOOs constrain to a special ‘builder’ class of MOO character, as for example, in Diversity University. In MediaMOO everyone is automatically a builder with full privileges to create objects and to extend the Virtual World. When people create new objects they are adding value to the virtual community.

I. Diversity University: An Example Educational MOO

Diversity University is a complete representation of a ‘virtual campus’, with offices, lecture, rooms, classrooms etc. This metaphor, though savagely criticised by some, such as Tari Lin Fanderclai (in ‘New Environments, New Pedagogies’(13)), does at least provide a familiar sense of space to students. In a similar way a number of ‘generic’ building tools to aid the educational process have been developed. Many of these have direct real world equivalents, partly in order to aid the transition of teaching in the real world to the virtual. Some examples of these generic tools, include a slide projector, a recording device, the aforementioned conversational robot, a classroom, a notice board and a lecture:

Slide Projector

Enables the production a display of up to ten text ‘slides’ (small notes) that can be prepared in advance. This may be useful, for examples, where a poem is to be discussed and analysed stanza by stanza; each slide could contain a stanza, which would be shown than followed by discussion.

Recording Device

The recording device is a very useful tool which enables activity in a room (such as anything said or emoted by people) to be recorded to a note in the MOO. This is often used to obtain transcripts of MOO sessions which can then be reviewed later


Allows a teacher to break students into groups. Students in groups can either just talk to others in their group, without being heard by the rest of the class or they can address to whole class. It is one attempt to get round the problem of too many people "speaking" at once, by breaking the class into more manageable groups. These rooms can also be ‘locked’ to all except students in that class, which may be useful to avoid interruptions.

Notice Board

This performs much as you would expect, i.e. it allows users (not just ‘builders’) to post notices on it.


This allows prepared presentations to be delivered. Can be useful for class presentations, as the text doesn't have to be entered in real time. It should be noted, however that a MOO is not the most suitable environment for delivering long lectures or presentations. Teaching strategies that actively involve the participants though discussion or object creation are likely to be more effective.

As has been seen with the conversational robot example, it is possible to extend the behaviour of these objects to use them in innovative ways.

J. Some Comments About Teaching in MOOs

On questioning the conversational robot Jesse (see above) in Diversity University about ‘Pedagogy’ some useful points are made about teaching in a MOO:

‘Because the MOO is an environment for Computer-Mediated Communication, ones' pedagogy needs to reflect the special nature of this environment. In a computer-mediated environment the professor no longer holds center stage. Also, no-one person can hold the attention of the class for an extended period of time... the most effective pedagogy tries to take advantage of the ability for frequent participation by the students Decentering one's authority and allowing the students to participate on their own (with sufficient directions from the instructor) tends to work best on a MOO.’

For teaching purposes, some disciplines are better suited then others to the textual environment of MOOs. It is recognised that for certain subjects a more graphical approach is required (such as for some of the sciences), but for many others the ease with which complex virtual worlds can be created is a powerful capability.

The nature of MOO communication makes them particularly suited for collaborative work, for example collaborative writing, or joint discussion of a literary text. The world-wide nature of the synchronous communication possible in MOOs is also particularly suited to language learning, as there can be direct and instantaneous interaction with native speakers from different countries. Indeed, there are a number of MOOs dedicated to language learning.

MOOs provide more of a total environment than, for example, email discussion lists, but this is not to say they have to be isolated from other means of on-line communication or real world classes. A MOO can be thought of as just another tool in the educators tool box, it need not be a replacement for existing teaching methods, but can be considered an enhancement to them. Even if a course is to be totally on-line (as in distance learning for example) some aspects of the teaching process are simply not that appropriate for use in a MOO reference materials, particularly, may be more appropriate on the World Wide Web.

At a more basic level, there are a number of things that can be done by an educator before commencing teaching with MOOs that will make the teaching process more effective (for a more thorough discussion of these points see ‘MOO Teacher's Tip Sheet’ where many of these points where initially made(14)):

K. MOO & MUD Client Software

The choice and quality of MOO client software has increased significantly for all platforms since the first iteration of this report in 1997. Of particular usefulness are the Java-based MOO clients, since these should work on any operating system that has a Java Virtual Machine (this is built into most Web browsers these days). An increasing number of educational MOOs now have such Java-based interfaces to their MOOs integrated into their Web pages (sometimes in conjunction with a VRML view), avoiding the need to download a separate MOO client (the Java MOO client is held on the same Web server as the MOO).

Windows Client Software

Mac Client Software

Java Client Software

Other MOO Client Software

L. Setting-up Your Own Educational MOO\WOO

Whilst there are quite a large number of educational MOOs available that you can use for your teaching, there are a number of reasons why you may you may wish to set-up your own (or collaborate with others), particularly if more than one of the below apply:

Another factor that may need to be taken into consideration in the future (again particularly for 'webbified' MOOs) is the network charging model for your institution. In the UK, universities are now charged directly on a usage basis for all daytime incoming transatlantic network traffic. If your institution is going to charge for such usage at a by-faculty/college level (as a number are considering), this could end up being expensive for your department if there are many students on a course using a non-European MOO\WOO(15). For these reasons you may wish to be able to use a MOO closer your own educational institution, although using a caching proxy may alleviate some of the problems.

M. Quick Set-up Guide

It is strongly advised that before considering creating your own educational MOO, you have some basic familiarity with MOO systems, including having visited a MOO and possibly having created some rooms or other objects. It is also recommended that you have a look at some of the documents below (particularly the first two), so that you have some idea of what you're getting into!

If you think you might still be interested in setting-up your own MOO, a good place to start experimenting is to create a MOO on a PC running Windows (preferably NT, since its more stable, though it should work on Windows 95 or 98), since this is the quickest and easiest to set-up initially:

  1. Download the software - the most basic MOO system requires at least two two main software components - the MOO server software itself, and a MOO core database. The following instructions apply to WinMOO, a Windows port of the classic LamdaMOO server, and the Lamdacore database - both of which are free to download and use (see the 'MOO Server Software' section below for download details).
  2. Install the software - you should now have two files - (or something similar if a new version has come out) and LambdaCore-latest.db. First extract the contents of the WinMOO file (using a utility such as Winzip) to a directory e.g. c:\winmoo, then move the Lamda-core file to the same location. You should probably now read the readme.txt file that should now be in c:\winmoo and ideally also the WinMOO FAQ mentioned there.
  3. Initialise the MOO server - assuming you have TCP\IP networking installed (if you can browse the Web, you probably already do), the MOO server is now ready to be initialised. Open up a DOS box (under NT, a command prompt) - do not boot into DOS, WinMOO is a 32-bit application and requires Windows to to operate - and type a command of the form:
    winmoo <old-database> <new-database> <port>

For example in this case you could type:

winmoo LambdaCore-latest.db my-moo.db 8888

Once WinMOO announces that #0 is listening on the port you selected (8888 in this case), your MOO is running:

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Fig 3. Initialising a MOO

NB: Next time you start your MOO server, use the <new-database> name, otherwise any changes you have made (such as creating new rooms) will have been lost e.g. winmoo my-moo.db my-moo2.db 8888

4.Connect to your MOO - connect to your machine (using your normal IP name or address, but on port 8888) with your favourite client, e.g. tkMOO-light, or even just a plain telnet.

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Fig 4. Connecting the MOO (1)

Then type 'connect wizard' to log on as the MOO administrator:

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Fig 5. Connecting the MOO (2)

Next, type 'news', this will give you extensive information on 'Getting Started with your LambdaCore MOO' (you may have back track using the scroll bar to be able to read all the text).

You are now in a position to start creating your own MOO environment!

5.Further information - At this point, if you haven't already done so, you should read some of the documents listed below and perhaps also join one or more of the email lists also mentioned, to help you get started.

N. Useful Documents

O. Useful Mailing Lists

There are also a number of mailing lists you can subscribe to, which can be very useful for advice:

·The MOO-Cows Mailing List:

‘This is an email discussion list for MOO administrators to discuss technical questions related to the LambdaMOO server and database. The list is primarily for MOO administrators, but others are also welcome to subscribe.’ ( To subscribe send an email to: with the following command in the body of your email message: subscribe moo-cows. NB: Use these details to subscribe to the Moo-Cows mailing list, instead of the instructions given in the LamdaMOO core database documentation (i.e. what you get when you type 'news' after first connecting), since the latter are out of date.

·On-line Educators' Resource Group List:

To subscribe to OERG-L, send an email to: with the following command in the body of your email message: subscribe oerg-l <your name> (where <your name> is replaced with your real name e.g. subscribe oerg-l John Smith)

·WinMOO Mailing List

A list for discussion of issues related to the WinMOO server, a good place to send start-up as well as technical questions. New versions of the software will also be announced here. To subscribe to WinMOO, send an email to: with the following command in the body of your email message: subscribe winmoo-l <your email> (where <your email> is replaced with your real email address e.g. subscribe winmoo-l

P. MOO Server Software

MOO Servers

·LamdaMOO (UNIX) - or FTP from:

The latest software is available at:

Programmer's manual:

Download from: or

In addition to the server, you will need a core database. A core database provides functionality augmenting that of the server. Every MOO needs to start from some kind of core database.

MOO Core databases

The CoMentor environment makes use of this:

According to their press release, "the High Wired enCore is the first publicly available MOO core database designed specifically for educational use".

At the time of writing this report, the eDUcore database has not yet been publicly released, although limited public beta testing is currently underway. Whilst it is intended to be a commercial product, it will be available free for schools and other non-commercial users. According to the press release: ‘the eDUcore provides numerous features especially designed for educational use, and supports a multimedia Web-based interface as well as the regular text-based system’.

Related Software

Q. Some Educational-Related MOOs

For a more complete list, see one of the listings Web sites given below.

·Cafe MOOlano (primarily for foreign languages and collaborative writing) - telnet:// Web:

·LinguaMOO - telnet:// Web:

MediaMOO (media technology) - telnet://

PMC-MOO (PostModern Culture) - telnet://

Postmodern MOO - telnet://

Tecfa MOO (educational technology)- telnet:// Web:

·VROMA (Latin and ancient Roman culture) - telnet:// Web:

Language Learning MOOs

·schMOOze University (English as a second or foreign language) - telnet:// Web:

MOO Français (French) - telnet://

MOOsaico (Portugese) - telnet://

MundoHispano (Spanish) -telnet:// Web:

·’LittleItaly’, Italian language MOO - telnet:// Web:

·MorgenGrauen LPmud, German language Mud - telnet://

Virtual Universities

·Diversity University - telnet:// Web:

·AussieMOO - telnet:// Web:

·PennMOO - telnet:// Web:

·Virtual Online University - telnet:// NB: Telnet connection appears not to work at the moment! Web:

Links to Educational MOO information

Links to MUD/MOO on-line Literature

Paul Groves

(1) Lamda MOO (telnet://

(2) Curtis, P. ‘MUDDing: Social Phenomena in Text-Based Virtual Realities’ (Xerox PARC, 1992 available at:

(3) Diversity University (

(4) After logging on to the DU MOO, type @go #3493 to get to the start of Dante's Inferno and then go down to explore it further (e.g. to get to the quoted section).

(5) After logging on to the DU MOO, type @go English to get to the English Building Entrance and then go sw (south-west) to get to the Prototype English Resource Center.

(6) Schweller, K. ‘Building Tools for Education’ (1994, available at:

(7) Higgins, R. ‘Milking the MOO COW: Combining Interim Technologies for Learning in Cyberspace’ (1997, available at:

(8) CoMentor was a finalist in the 1998 European Academic Software Awards ( To see CoMentor go to:

(9) Harris, L. D. ‘Transitional Realms: Teaching Composition in 'Rhetland'’ (available at:

(10) MediaMoo (telnet://

(11) Bruckman, A. and Resnick, M. ‘The MediaMOO Project: Constructionism and Professional Community’ (MIT Media Lab, 1995, available at:

(12) ‘A Discussion About Building Authentic Communities in Virtual Spaces’ from the Diversity University MOO Log, May 10, 1995 (available at:

(13) Fanderclai, T. L. ‘MUDs in Education: New Environments, New Pedagogies’ (available at:

(14) Gardner, T. ‘MOO Teacher's Tip Sheet’ (see

(15) For more information about the JANET's charging model see:

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