The ENRICH SchemaA Reference Guide
edited by Lou Burnard
Oxford
October 2008

Introduction

This Reference Guide defines an XML format for the structure of the data which all ENRICH partners will contribute to the Manuscriptorium, either directly or indirectly by means of a harvester or transformation process. The format is formally expressed by a schema which is generated from the XML source of this guide. The guide itself is a conformant subset of Release 1.4 of The Text Encoding Initiative's Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange (TEI P5).

The schema defined by this document addresses three distinct aspects of a digitized manuscript:
  1. metadata describing the original source manuscript ( 1 Manuscript Description Metadata)
  2. metadata describing digitized images of the original source manuscript ( 2 Metadata about digital facsimiles)
  3. a transcription of the text contained by the original source manuscript

Within Manuscriptorium, only the first two are required. However, the schema documented here also provides for the third, in the interest of completeness and for the assistance of ENRICH partners wishing to provide richer access facilities to their holdings.

The schema defined by this document is available in DTD, RELAX NG, and W3C Schema languages. Along with the present documentation, this forms one of the key deliverables for Work Package 3 of the ENRICH project.

Earlier versions of Manuscriptorium used schemas based on MASTER, notably one known as MASTER-X. These specifications both defined comparatively unconstrained XML formats, which permitted a very wide range of possibilities and did not attempt to constrain (for example) values to any predefined set of values. While appropriate for an interchange format, this approach has some drawbacks:
In the ENRICH schema, we have tried to address these concerns by reducing the number of choices and constraining the possible values for several attributes. Nevertheless,
The overall structure of an ENRICH-conformant XML document may be summarized as follows:
<TEI>
 <teiHeader>
<!-- ... metadata describing the manuscript -->
 </teiHeader>
 <facsimile>
<!-- ... metadata describing the digital images -->
 </facsimile>
 <text>
<!-- (optional) transcription of the manuscript -->
 </text>
</TEI>

The remainder of this Guide describes each of these aspects in more detail, using material derived from the P5 release of the TEI Guidelines.

1 Manuscript Description Metadata

Each distinct manuscript must be described using a distinct TEI-conformant teiHeader element, as specified in the TEI Guidelines, chapter 2. This element may contain many components, depending on the needs of the creator, which may be provided in either structured or (relatively) unstructured form. For Manuscriptorium purposes, the following components of the TEI Header must be provided, and must conform to the constraints specified here.

Other header components, if present, will be ignored by Manuscriptorium; they will be retained for storage in the system and returned on request, but their content is not processed for any purpose, and they may not be visible for searching purposes.

The following example shows the minimal required structure:
<teiHeader>
 <fileDesc>
  <titleStmt>
   <title>[Title of manuscript]</title>
  </titleStmt>
  <publicationStmt>
   <distributor>[name of data provider]</distributor>
   <idno>[project-specific identifier]</idno>
  </publicationStmt>
  <sourceDesc>
   <msDesc xml:id="ex5" xml:lang="en">
<!-- [full manuscript description ]-->
   </msDesc>
  </sourceDesc>
 </fileDesc>
 <revisionDesc>
  <change when="2008-01-01">
<!-- [revision information] -->
  </change>
 </revisionDesc>
</teiHeader>
Taking these in turn,
The msDesc element is used to provide detailed information about a single manuscript. For ENRICH purposes, this must carry the attributes mentioned above, to supply a unique internal identifier for the manuscript, and to specify the language of its description respectively.

The value for xml:id may be the same as the value supplied for the idno element in the teiHeader, or it may be some other project-specific identifier used for cross-reference. It should however be prefixed by an identifier for the partner concerned, so as to avoid possible identifier collisions.

The value for xml:lang, as elsewhere, must be supplied in the form of a valid language identifier (see below). If no value is supplied, the assumption is that the language of the description is English.

The msDesc element has the following component elements, each of which is further described in the remainder of this section.

The first of these components, msIdentifier, is mandatory; it is described in more detail in 1.2 The Manuscript Identifier below. It is followed by either one or more paragraphs, marked up as a series of p elements, or one or more of the specialized elements msContents ( 1.4 Intellectual Content), physDesc ( 1.5 Physical Description), history ( 1.6 History), and additional ( 1.7 Additional information). These elements are all optional, but if used they must appear in the order given here. Finally, in the case of a composite manuscript, a full description may also contain one or more msPart elements ( 1.8 Manuscript Parts).

To demonstrate the variety of records which may be produced, consider the following sample manuscript description, chosen more or less at random from the Bodleian Library's Summary catalogue
Entry for Bodleian MS. Add. A. 61 in Madan et al.
    1895-1953
Figure 1. Entry for Bodleian MS. Add. A. 61 in Madan et al. 1895-1953
The simplest way of digitizing this catalogue entry would simply be to key in the text, tagging the relevant parts of it which make up the mandatory msIdentifier element, as follows:
<msDesc xml:id="ex4" xml:lang="en">
 <msIdentifier>
  <settlement>Oxford</settlement>
  <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
  <idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
  <altIdentifier type="former">
   <idno>28843</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
 </msIdentifier>
 <p>In Latin, on parchment: written in more than one hand of the 13th
   cent. in England: 7¼ x 5⅜ in., i + 55 leaves, in double columns: with
   a few coloured capitals.</p>
 <p>'Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie,' the De origine et gestis Regum
   Angliae of Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monumetensis: beg. 'Cum
   mecum multa &amp; de multis.'</p>
 <p>On fol. 54v very faint is 'Iste liber est fratris guillelmi de
   buria de ... Roberti ordinis fratrum Pred[icatorum],' 14th cent. (?):
   'hanauilla' is written at the foot of the page (15th cent.). Bought
   from the rev. W. D. Macray on March 17, 1863, for £1 10s.</p>
</msDesc>
With a suitable stylesheet, this encoding would be as readable as the original; it would not, however, be very useful for search purposes since only shelfmarks and other identifiers are distinguished by the markup. To improve on this, one might wrap the paragraphs in the appropriate special-purpose first-child-level elements of msDesc and use some additional phrase-level elements:
<msDesc xml:id="ex1" xml:lang="en">
 <msIdentifier>
  <settlement>Oxford</settlement>
  <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
  <idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
  <altIdentifier type="former">
   <idno>28843</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
 </msIdentifier>
 <msContents>
  <p>
   <quote xml:lang="lat">Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie,</quote> the
  <title xml:lang="lat">De origine et gestis Regum Angliae</title>
     of Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monumetensis):
     beg. <quote xml:lang="lat">Cum mecum multa &amp; de multis.</quote>
     In Latin.</p>
 </msContents>
 <physDesc>
  <p>
   <material>Parchment</material>: written in
     more than one hand: 7¼ x 5⅜ in., i + 55 leaves, in double
     columns: with a few coloured capitals.</p>
 </physDesc>
 <history>
  <p>Written in
  <origPlace>England</origPlace> in the
  <origDate>13th cent.</origDate> On fol. 54v very faint is
  <quote xml:lang="lat">Iste liber est fratris guillelmi de buria de ... Roberti
       ordinis fratrum Pred[icatorum],</quote> 14th cent. (?):
  <quote>hanauilla</quote> is written at the foot of the page
     (15th cent.). Bought from the rev. W. D. Macray on March 17, 1863, for
     £1 10s.</p>
 </history>
</msDesc>
Such an encoding allows the user to search for such features as title, material, and date and place of origin; it is also possible to distinguish quoted material and Latin material from descriptive passages and to search within distinct parts of the description, for example, the manuscript history as distinct from its materials.
This process could be continued further, restructuring the whole entry so as to take full advantage of many more encoding possibilities:
<msDesc xml:id="ex2" xml:lang="en">
 <msIdentifier>
  <settlement>Oxford</settlement>
  <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>
  <idno>MS. Add. A. 61</idno>
  <altIdentifier type="former">
   <idno>28843</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
 </msIdentifier>
 <msContents>
  <msItem>
   <author xml:lang="en">Geoffrey of Monmouth</author>
   <author xml:lang="la">Galfridus Monumetensis</author>
   <title type="uniform" xml:lang="la">De origine et
       gestis Regum Angliae</title>
   <rubric xml:lang="la">Hic incipit Bruitus Anglie</rubric>
   <incipit xml:lang="la">Cum mecum multa &amp; de multis</incipit>
   <textLang mainLang="la">Latin</textLang>
  </msItem>
 </msContents>
 <physDesc>
  <objectDesc form="codex">
   <supportDesc material="perg">
    <support>
     <p>Parchment.</p>
    </support>
    <extent>i + 55 leaves
    <dimensions scope="all" type="leaf" unit="in">
      <height></height>
      <width>5⅜</width>
     </dimensions>
    </extent>
   </supportDesc>
   <layoutDesc>
    <layout columns="2">
     <p>In double columns.</p>
    </layout>
   </layoutDesc>
  </objectDesc>
  <handDesc>
   <p>Written in more than one hand.</p>
  </handDesc>
  <decoDesc>
   <p>With a few coloured capitals.</p>
  </decoDesc>
 </physDesc>
 <history>
  <origin>
   <p>Written in <origPlace>England</origPlace> in the <origDate notAfter="1300" notBefore="1200">13th cent.</origDate>
   </p>
  </origin>
  <provenance>
   <p>On fol. 54v very faint is
   <quote xml:lang="la">Iste liber est fratris guillelmi de buria de
    <gap reason="illegible"/>
         Roberti ordinis fratrum
         Pred<ex>icatorum</ex>
    </quote>, 14th cent. (?):
   <quote>hanauilla</quote> is written at the foot of the page
       (15th cent.).</p>
  </provenance>
  <acquisition>
   <p>Bought from the rev. <name type="person" key="MCRAYWD">W. D. Macray</name> on
   <date when="1863-03-17">March 17, 1863</date>, for £1 10s.</p>
  </acquisition>
 </history>
</msDesc>

1.1 Phrase-level Elements

Phrase-level elements are XML elements that can appear at the same hierarchic level as text in many parts of the digital record. Some of these are specialized, in that they may be used only within particular contexts; others may be used in any context. Within the components of the msDesc element, the following specialized phrase level elements are available:
  • catchwords describes the system used to ensure correct ordering of the quires making up a codex or incunable, typically by means of annotations at the foot of the page.
  • dimensions contains a dimensional specification.
  • heraldry contains a heraldic formula or phrase, typically found as part of a blazon, coat of arms, etc.
  • locus defines a location within a manuscript or manuscript part, usually as a (possibly discontinuous) sequence of folio references.
  • locusGrp groups a number of locations which together form a distinct but discontinuous item within a manuscript or manuscript part, according to a specific foliation.
  • material contains a word or phrase describing the material of which a manuscript (or part of a manuscript) is composed.
  • watermark contains a word or phrase describing a watermark or similar device.
  • origDate (origin date) contains any form of date, used to identify the date of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • origPlace (origin place) contains any form of place name, used to identify the place of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • secFol (second folio) The word or words taken from a fixed point in a codex (typically the beginning of the second leaf) in order to provide a unique identifier for it.
  • signatures contains discussion of the leaf or quire signatures found within a codex.

1.1.1 Origination

The following elements may be used to provide information about the origins of any aspect of a manuscript:
  • origDate (origin date) contains any form of date, used to identify the date of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • origPlace (origin place) contains any form of place name, used to identify the place of origin for a manuscript or manuscript part.
The origDate and origPlace elements are used to indicate the date and place of origin of a manuscript or manuscript part. Such information will usually appear within the history element, discussed in section 1.6 History, but can also appear within other parts of the manuscript description, such as its decoration or binding, when these are not of the same date as the manuscript itself. Both these elements are members of the att.editLike class, from which they inherit the following attributes:
  • att.editLike provides attributes describing the nature of a encoded scholarly intervention or interpretation of any kind.
    cert (certainty) signifies the degree of certainty associated with the intervention or interpretation.
    resp (responsible party) indicates the agency responsible for the intervention or interpretation, for example an editor or transcriber.
    evidence indicates the nature of the evidence supporting the reliability or accuracy of the intervention or interpretation.
The origDate element is a member of the att.datable class, and may thus also carry the following attributes:
  • att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the W3C datatypes.
    notBefore specifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    notAfter specifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    when supplies the value of the date or time in a standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    from indicates the starting point of the period in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    to indicates the ending point of the period in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.

1.1.2 Material

The material element can be used to tag any specific term used for the physical material of which a manuscript (or binding, seal, etc.) is composed.
  • material contains a word or phrase describing the material of which a manuscript (or part of a manuscript) is composed.
The element may appear wherever a term regarded as significant by the encoder occurs, as in the following example:
<binding>
 <p>Brown <material>calfskin</material>, previously with two clasps.</p>
</binding>

1.1.3 Watermarks and Stamps

Two further elements are provided to mark up other decorative features characteristic of manuscript leaves and bindings:
  • watermark contains a word or phrase describing a watermark or similar device.
  • stamp contains a word or phrase describing a stamp or similar device.
These elements may appear wherever a term regarded as significant by the encoder occurs. The watermark element is most likely to be of use within the support element discussed in 1.5.1.1 Support below. We give a simple example here:
<support>
 <material>Rag
   paper</material> with <watermark>anchor</watermark>
watermark
</support>
The stamp element will typically appear when text from the source is being transcribed, for example within a rubric in the following case:
<rubric>
 <lb/>Apologyticu TTVLLIANI AC IGNORATIA IN XPO IHV<lb/>
SI NON LICET<lb/>
NOBIS RO<lb type="inWord"/>
manii imperii <stamp>Bodleian stamp</stamp>
</rubric>
It may also appear as part of the detailed description of a binding:
<binding>
 <p>Modern calf recasing with original armorial stamp <stamp>Ex
     Bibliotheca J. Richard D.M.</stamp>
 </p>
</binding>

1.1.4 Dimensions

The dimensions element can be used to specify the size of some aspect of the manuscript.
  • dimensions contains a dimensional specification.
    type indicates which aspect of the object is being measured.

The dimensions element will normally occur within the element describing the particular feature or aspect of a manuscript whose dimensions are being given; thus the size of the leaves would be specified within the support or extent element (part of the physDesc element discussed in 1.5.1 Object Description), while the dimensions of other specific parts of a manuscript, such as accompanying materials, binding, etc., would be given in other parts of the description, as appropriate.

The type attribute on the dimensions element is used to specify more exactly the item being measured. For ENRICH purposes, this attribute must take one of the following values: leaf, binding, slip, written, boxed.

The following elements are available within the dimensions element:
  • dim contains any single measurement forming part of a dimensional specification of some sort.
  • height contains a measurement measured along the axis at right angles to the bottom of the written surface, i.e. parallel to the spine for a codex or book.
  • width contains a measurement measured along the axis parallel to the bottom of the written surface, i.e. perpendicular to the spine of a book or codex.
  • depth specifies a length measured across the spine.
The dim element may be used to supply any kind of dimensional information, for example diameter or circumference, and may be repeated as often as needed. The other three have specific senses and each of them may only be given once.
These elements, as well as dimensions itself, are all members of the att.dimensions class, and thus all carry the following attributes:
  • att.dimensions provides attributes for describing the size of physical objects.
    unit names the unit used for the measurement
    quantity specifies the length in the units specified
    scope where the measurement summarizes more than one observation, specifies the applicability of this measurement.
Through this class membership, these elements also inherit the following attributes from the att.ranging class:
  • att.ranging provides attributes for describing numerical ranges.
    atLeast gives a minimum estimated value for the measurement.
    atMost gives a maximum estimated value for the measurement.
    min where the measurement summarizes more than one observation, supplies the minimum value observed.
    max where the measurement summarizes more than one observation, supplies the maximum value observed.

Attributes min, max, and scope are used only when the measurement applies to several items, for example the size of many or all the leaves in a manuscript; attributes atLeast and atMost are used when the measurement applies to a single item, for example the size of a specific codex, but has had to be estimated. Attribute <quantity> is used when the measurement can be given exactly, and applies to a single item; this is the usual situation. The units in which dimensions are measured should always be specified using the unit attribute, which will normally be taken from a closed set of values appropriate to the project, using standard units of measurement wherever possible. In the ENRICH project the following values are permitted: cm, mm, in, line, char. If the only data available for the measurement uses some other unit, or it is preferred to normalize it in some other way, then it may be supplied as a string value using the extent attribute.

The content of these elements, if present, simply copies the way that the measurement is presented in some source text; it may be omitted.

In the simplest case, only the extent attribute may be supplied:
<width extent="6 cubit">six cubits</width>
More usually, the measurement will be normalised into a value and an appropriate SI unit:
<width quantity="270" unit="cm">six cubits</width>
Where the exact value is uncertain, the attributes atLeast and atMost may be used to indicate the upper and lower bounds of an estimated value:
<width atLeast="250" atMost="300" unit="cm">six cubits</width>
It is often convenient to supply a measurement which applies to a number of discrete observations: for example, the number of ruled lines on the pages of a manuscript (which may not all be the same), or the diameter of an object like a bell, which will differ depending where it is measured. In such cases, the scope attribute may be used to specify the observations for which this measurement is applicable:
<height unit="lines" scope="most" atLeast="20"/>
This indicates that most pages have at least 20 lines. The attributes min and max can also be used to specify the possible range of values: for example, to show that all pages have between 12 and 30 lines:
<height
  unit="lines"
  scope="all"
  min="12"
  max="30"/>
The dimensions element may be repeated as often as necessary, with appropriate attribute values to indicate the nature and scope of the measurement concerned. For example, in the following case the leaf size and ruled space of the leaves of the manuscript are specified:
<dimensions type="written" unit="mm">
 <height scope="most" quantity="90" unit="mm"/>
 <width scope="most" quantity="48" unit="mm"/>
</dimensions>
<dimensions type="leaves">
 <height min="157" max="160" unit="mm"/>
 <width quantity="105"/>
</dimensions>
This indicates that for most leaves of the manuscript being described the ruled space is 90 mm high and 48 mm wide, while the leaves throughout are between 157 and 160 mm in height and 105 mm in width.

1.1.5 References to Locations within a Manuscript

The locus element and its grouping element locusGrp are specialized forms of the ref element.
  • locus defines a location within a manuscript or manuscript part, usually as a (possibly discontinuous) sequence of folio references.
    from specifies the starting point of the location in a normalized form.
    to specifies the end-point of the location in a normalized form.
    scheme identifies the foliation scheme in terms of which the location is being specified.
  • locusGrp groups a number of locations which together form a distinct but discontinuous item within a manuscript or manuscript part, according to a specific foliation.
    scheme identifies the foliation scheme in terms of which all the locations contained by the group are specified.

The locus element is used to reference a single location within a manuscript, typically to specify the location occupied by the element within which it appears. If for example it is used as the first component of an msItem element, or of any of the more specific elements appearing within one (see further section 1.4 Intellectual Content below, then it is understood to specify the location (or locations) of that item within the manuscript being described.

A locus element can be used to identify any reference to one or more folios within a manuscript, wherever such a reference is appropriate. Locations are conventionally specified as a sequence of folio or page numbers, but may also be a discontinuous list, or a combination of the two. This specification should be given as the content of the locus element, using the conventions appropriate to the individual scholar or holding institution, as in the following example:
<msItem n="1">
 <locus>ff. 1-24r</locus>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
A normalized form of the location can also be supplied, using special purpose attributes on the locus element, as in the following revision of the above example:
<msItem n="1">
 <locus from="1r" to="24r">ff. 1-24r</locus>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
When the item concerned occupies a discontinuous sequence of pages, this may simply be indicated in the body of the locus element:
<msItem n="1">
 <locus>ff. 1-12v, 18-24r</locus>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
Alternatively, if it is desired to indicate normalised values for each part of the sequence, a sequence of locus elements can be supplied, grouped within the locusGrp element:
<msItem n="1">
 <locusGrp>
  <locus from="1r" to="12v">ff. 1-12v</locus>
  <locus from="18" to="24r">ff. 18-24r</locus>
 </locusGrp>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
Finally, the content of the locus element may be omitted if a formatting application can construct it automatically from the values of the from and to attributes:
<msItem n="1">
 <locusGrp>
  <locus from="1r" to="12v"/>
  <locus from="18" to="24r"/>
 </locusGrp>
 <title>Apocalypsis beati Ioannis Apostoli</title>
</msItem>
If a digital image is available for the locus described by the locus element, then the facs attribute should be used to associate it with that image, as in the following example:
<decoDesc>
 <p>Several of the miniatures in this section have been damaged and
   overpainted at a later date (e.g. the figure of Christ on
 <locus facs="#F33R">fol. 33r</locus>; the face of the
   Shepherdess on <locus facs="#F59V">fol. 59v</locus>,
   etc.).</p>
</decoDesc>
Usually, the facs attribute points directly to a surface element within the facsimile element associated with the manuscript description, as further discussed in section 2 Metadata about digital facsimiles below. It is also possible, but not recommended, to use this attribute to point to images of the relevant pages held in some other external image archive.
Where a transcription of the relevant pages is also available, this may be pointed to using the target attribute, as in the following example:

<!-- within ms description --><msItem n="1">
 <locus target="#f1r #f1v #f2r">ff. 1r-2r</locus>
 <author>Ben Jonson</author>
 <title>Ode to himself</title>
 <rubric rend="italics">
  <lb/>An Ode<lb/> to him selfe.</rubric>
 <incipit>Com leaue the loathed stage</incipit>
 <explicit>And see his chariot triumph ore his wayne.</explicit>
 <bibl>
  <name type="person">Beal</name>, <title>Index 1450-1625</title>, JnB 380</bibl>
</msItem>
<!-- within transcription ... -->
<pb xml:id="f1r"/>
<!-- ... -->
<pb xml:id="f1v"/>
<!-- ... -->
<pb xml:id="f2r"/>
<!-- ... -->
Where a manuscript contains more than one foliation, the scheme attribute may be used to distinguish them. For example, MS 65 Corpus Christi College, Cambridge contains two fly leaves bearing music. These leaves have modern foliation 135 and 136 respectively, but are also marked with an older foliation. This may be preserved in an encoding such as the following:
<locus scheme="#original">XCIII</locus>
<locus scheme="#modern">135</locus>
Here the scheme attribute points to a foliation element providing more details about the scheme used, as further discussed in 1.5.1.4 Foliation below.

1.1.6 Names of Persons, Places, and Organizations

The standard TEI element name may be used to identify names of any kind occurring within a description:
  • name (name, proper noun) contains a proper noun or noun phrase.
As further discussed in http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CO.html#CONARS , this element is a member of the TEI class att.canonical, from which it inherits the following attributes:
  • att.canonical provides attributes which can be used to associate a representation such as a name or title with canonical information about the object being named or referenced.
    key provides an externally-defined means of identifying the entity (or entities) being named, using a coded value of some kind.
    ref (reference) provides an explicit means of locating a full definition for the entity being named by means of one or more URIs.
Here are some examples of the use of the name element:
<name type="person">Thomas Hoccleve</name>
<name type="place">Villingaholt</name>
<name type="org">Vetus Latina Institut</name>
<name type="person" ref="#HOC001">Occleve</name>
Note that the name element is defined as providing information about a name, not the person, place, or organization to which that name refers. In the last example above, the ref attribute is used to associate the name with a more detailed description of the person named. This is provided by means of the person element, which is also available in the ENRICH schema. An element such as the following might then be used to provide detailed information about the person indicated by the name:
<person xml:id="HOC001" sex="1">
 <persName>
  <surname>Hoccleve</surname>
  <forename>Thomas</forename>
 </persName>
 <birth notBefore="1368"/>
 <occupation>poet</occupation>
<!-- other personal data -->
</person>
Note that an instance of the person element must be provided for each distinct ref value specified. In the example above, the value HOC001 must be found as the xml:id attribute of some person; the same value will be used as the ref attribute of every reference to Hoccleve in the document (however spelled), but there will only be one person element with this identifier.

Alternatively, the key attribute may be used to supply an identifying code for the person referenced by the name independently of both the existence of a person element and the use of the standard URI reference mechanism. If, for example, a project maintains as its authority file some non-digital resource, or uses a database which cannot readily be integrated with other digital resources for this purpose, the unique codes used by such ‘offline’ resources may be used as values for the key attribute. Although such practices clearly reduce the interchangeability of the resulting encoded texts, they may be judged more convenient or practical in certain situations.

All the person elements referenced by a particular document set should be collected together within a listPerson element, located in the TEI Header. This functions as a kind of prosopography for all the people referenced by the set of manuscripts being described, in much the same way as a listBibl element in the back matter may be used to hold bibliographic information for all the works referenced.

Similar mechanisms are used to maintain and reference canonical lists of places or organizations.

1.1.7 Catchwords, Signatures, Secundo Folio

The catchwords element is used to describe one method by which correct ordering of the quires of a codex is ensured. Typically, this takes the form of a word or phrase written in the lower margin of the last leaf verso of a gathering, which provides a preview of the first recto leaf of the successive gathering. This may be a simple phrase such as the following:
<catchwords>Quires signed on the last leaf verso in roman numerals.</catchwords>
Alternatively, it may contain more details:
<catchwords>Vertical catchwords in the hand of the scribe placed along
the inner bounding line, reading from top to bottom.</catchwords>
The ‘Signatures’ element is used, in a similar way, to describe a similar system in which quires or leaves are marked progressively in order to facilitate arrangement during binding. For example:
<signatures>At the bottom of the first four leaves of quires 1-14 are
the remains of a series of quire signatures a-o plus roman figures in
a cursive hand of the fourteenth century.</signatures>
The signatures element can be used for either leaf signatures, or a combination of quire and leaf signatures, whether the marking is alphabetic, alphanumeric, or some ad hoc system, as in the following more complex example:
<signatures>Quire and leaf signatures in letters, [b]-v, and roman numerals;
those in quires 10 (1) and 17 (s) in red ink and different from others;
every third quire also signed with red crayon in arabic numerals in the
centre lower margin of the first leaf recto: "2" for quire 4 (f. 19),
"3" for quire 7 (f. 43); "4", barely visible, for quire 10 (f. 65), "5",
in a later hand, for quire 13 (f. 89), "6", in a later hand, for quire
16 (f. 113).</signatures>
The secFol element (for ‘secundo folio’) is used to record an identifying phrase (also called dictio probatoria) taken from a specific known point in a codex (for example the first few words on the second leaf). Since these words will differ from one copy of a text to another, the practice originated in the middle ages of using them when cataloguing a manuscript in order to distinguish individual copies of a work in a way which its opening words could not.
<secFol>(ando-)ssene in una villa</secFol>

1.1.8 Heraldry

Descriptions of heraldic arms, supporters, devices, and mottos may appear at various points in the description of a manuscript, usually in the context of ownership information, binding descriptions, or detailed accounts of illustrations. A full description may also contain a detailed account of the heraldic components of a manuscript independently considered. Frequently, however, heraldic descriptions will be cited as short phrases within other parts of the record. The phrase level element heraldry is provided to allow such phrases to be marked for further analysis, as in the following examples:
<p>Ownership stamp (xvii cent.) on i recto with the arms <heraldry>A bull
   passant within a bordure bezanty, in chief a crescent for difference</heraldry>
[Cole], crest, and the legend <quote>Cole Deum</quote>.</p>
<!-- ... -->
<p>A c. 8r fregio su due lati, <heraldry>stemma e imprese medicee</heraldry>
racchiudono l'inizio dell'epistolario di Paolino.</p>

1.2 The Manuscript Identifier

The msIdentifier element is intended to provide an unambiguous means of uniquely identifying a particular manuscript. This may be done in a structured way, by providing information about the holding institution and the call number, shelfmark, or other identifier used to indicate its location within that institution. Alternatively, or in addition, a manuscript may be identified simply by a commonly used name.
  • msIdentifier (manuscript identifier) contains the information required to identify the manuscript being described.

A manuscript's actual physical location may occasionally be different from its place of ownership; at Cambridge University, for example, manuscripts owned by various colleges are kept in the central University Library. Normally, it is the ownership of the manuscript which should be specified in the manuscript identifier, while additional or more precise information on the physical location of the manuscript can be given within the adminInfo element, discussed in section 1.7.1 Administrative information below.

The following elements are available within msIdentifier to identify the holding institution:
  • country (country) contains the name of a geo-political unit, such as a nation, country, colony, or commonwealth, larger than or administratively superior to a region and smaller than a bloc.
  • region contains the name of an administrative unit such as a state, province, or county, larger than a settlement, but smaller than a country.
  • settlement contains the name of a settlement such as a city, town, or village identified as a single geo-political or administrative unit.
  • institution contains the name of an organization such as a university or library, with which a manuscript is identified, generally its holding institution.
  • repository contains the name of a repository within which manuscripts are stored, possibly forming part of an institution.

At least one of the elements listed above must be given within the msIdentifier and they must, if present, appear in the order given.

Like name, these elements are all also members of the attribute class att.canonical, and thus can use the attributes key or ref to reference a single standardized source of information about the entity being named.

The following elements are used within msIdentifier to provide different ways of identifying the manuscript within its holding institution:
  • collection contains the name of a collection of manuscripts, not necessarily located within a single repository.
  • idno (identifying number) supplies any number or other identifier used to identify a bibliographic item in a standardized way.
  • altIdentifier (alternative identifier) contains an alternative or former structured identifier used for a manuscript, such as a former catalogue number.
    type characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
  • msName (alternative name) contains any form of unstructured alternative name used for a manuscript, such as an ‘ocellus nominum’, or nickname.
Major manuscript repositories will usually have a preferred form of citation for manuscript shelfmarks, including rules about punctuation, spacing, abbreviation, etc., which should be adhered to. Where such a format also contains information which might additionally be supplied as a distinct subcomponent of the msIdentifier, for example a collection name, a decision must be taken as to whether to use the more specific element, or to include such information within the idno element. For example, the manuscript formally identified as ‘El 26 C 0’ forms a part of the Ellesmere (‘El’) collection. Either of the following encodings is therefore feasible:
<msIdentifier>
 <country>USA</country>
 <region type="state">California</region>
 <settlement>San Marino</settlement>
 <repository>Huntington Library</repository>
 <collection>El</collection>
 <idno>26 C 9</idno>
 <msName>The Ellesmere Chaucer</msName>
</msIdentifier>
<msIdentifier>
 <country>USA</country>
 <region type="state">California</region>
 <settlement>San Marino</settlement>
 <repository>Huntington Library</repository>
 <idno>El 26 C 9</idno>
 <msName>The Ellesmere Chaucer</msName>
</msIdentifier>
In the former example, the preferred form of the identifier can be retrieved by prefixing the content of the idno element with that of the collection element, while in the latter it is given explicitly. The advantage of the former is that it it simplifies accurate retrieval of all manuscripts from a given collection; the disadvantage is that encoded abbreviations of this kind may not be as immediately comprehensible. Care should be taken to avoid redundancy: for example
<collection>El</collection>
<idno>El 26 C 9</idno>
would clearly be inappropriate. Equally clearly,
<collection>Ellesmere</collection>
<idno>El 26 C 9</idno>
might be considered helpful in some circumstances (if, for example, some of the items in the Ellsemere collection had shelfmarks which did not begin ‘El’)
In cases where the shelfmark contains no information about the collection, it may be necessary to provide this explicitly, as in the following example:
<msIdentifier>
 <country>USA</country>
 <region type="state">New Jersey</region>
 <settlement>Princeton</settlement>
 <repository>Princeton University Library</repository>
 <collection>Scheide Library</collection>
 <idno>MS 71</idno>
 <msName>Blickling Homiliary</msName>
</msIdentifier>
In these examples, msName has been used to provide a common name other than the shelfmark by which a manuscript is known. Where a manuscript has several such names, more than one of these elements may be used, as in the following example:
<msIdentifier>
 <country>Danmark</country>
 <settlement>København</settlement>
 <repository>Det Arnamagnæanske Institut</repository>
 <idno>AM 45 fol.</idno>
 <msName xml:lang="la">Codex Frisianus</msName>
 <msName xml:lang="is">Fríssbók</msName>
</msIdentifier>
Here the globally available xml:lang attribute has been used to specify the language of the alternative names.
In very rare cases a repository may have only one manuscript (or only one of any significance), which will have no shelfmark as such but will be known by a particular name or names. In such circumstances, the idno element may be omitted, and the manuscript identified by the name or names used for it, using one or more msName elements, as in the following example:
<msIdentifier>
 <settlement>Rossano</settlement>
 <repository xml:lang="it">Biblioteca arcivescovile</repository>
 <msName xml:lang="la">Codex Rossanensis</msName>
 <msName xml:lang="la">Codex purpureus</msName>
 <msName xml:lang="en">The Rossano Gospels</msName>
</msIdentifier>
Where manuscripts have moved from one institution to another, or even within the same institution, they may have identifiers additional to the ones currently used, such as former shelfmarks, which are sometimes retained even after they have been officially superseded. In such cases it may be useful to supply an alternative identifier using the altIdentifier element, which has a detailed structure similar to that of the msIdentifier element, and an additional attribute type to indicate what kind of alternative identifier this is. Only the following possibilities are envisaged:
former
former catalogue or shelf number
partial
identifier of a previously distinct item
internal
internal project identifier
other
other unspecified identifier
Element altIdentifier change
The following example shows a manuscript which had shelfmark II-M-5 in the collection of the Duque de Osuna, but which now has the shelfmark MS 10237 in the National Library in Madrid:
<msIdentifier>
 <settlement>Madrid</settlement>
 <repository>Biblioteca Nacional</repository>
 <idno>MS 10237</idno>
 <altIdentifier type="former">
  <region type="state">Andalucia</region>
  <settlement>Osuna</settlement>
  <repository>Duque de Osuna</repository>
  <idno>II-M-5</idno>
 </altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
Alternatively, such information may be dealt with under history or adminInfo, except in cases where a manuscript is likely still to be referred to or known by its former identifier.
Cases of such changed or alternative identifiers should be clearly distinguished from cases of ‘scattered’ manuscripts, that is to say manuscripts which although physically disjoint are nevertheless generally treated as single units. One well-known example is the Old Church Slavonic manuscript known as Codex Suprasliensis, substantial parts of which are to be found in three separate repositories, in Ljubljana, Warsaw, and St. Petersburg. This should be represented using three distinct altIdentifier elements, using the value partial on the type attribute to indicate that these three identifiers are not alternate ways of referring to the same physical object, but three parts of the same entity.
<msIdentifier>
 <msName xml:lang="la">Codex Suprasliensis</msName>
 <altIdentifier type="partial">
  <settlement>Ljubljana</settlement>
  <repository>Narodna in univerzitetna knjiznica</repository>
  <idno>MS Kopitar 2</idno>
  <note>Contains ff. 10 to 42 only</note>
 </altIdentifier>
 <altIdentifier type="partial">
  <settlement>Warszawa</settlement>
  <repository>Biblioteka Narodowa</repository>
  <idno>BO 3.201</idno>
 </altIdentifier>
 <altIdentifier type="partial">
  <settlement>Sankt-Peterburg</settlement>
  <repository>Rossiiskaia natsional'naia biblioteka</repository>
  <idno>Q.p.I.72</idno>
 </altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>

As mentioned above, the smallest possible description is one that contains only the element msIdentifier; good practice in all but exceptional circumstances requires the presence within it of the three sub-elements settlement, repository, and idno, since they provide what is, by common consent, the minimum amount of information necessary to identify a manuscript.

1.3 The Manuscript Heading

Historically, the briefest possible meaningful description of a manuscript consists of no more than a title, e.g. Polychronicon. This will often have been enough to identify a manuscript in a small collection because the identity of the author is implicit. Where a title does not imply the author, and is thus insufficient to identify the main text of a manuscript, the author should be stated explicitly (e.g. Augustinus, Sermones or Cicero, Letters). Many inventories of manuscripts consist of no more than an author and title, with some form of copy-specific identifier, such as a shelfmark or ‘secundo folio’ reference (e.g. Arch. B. 3. 2: Evangelium Matthei cum glossa, 126. Isidori Originum libri octo, Biblia Hieronimi, 2o fo. opus est); information on date and place of writing will sometimes also be included. The standard TEI element head element can be used to provide a brief description of this kind.
  • head (heading) contains any type of heading, for example the title of a section, or the heading of a list, glossary, manuscript description, etc.
In this way the cataloguer or scholar can supply in one place a minimum of essential information, such as might be displayed or printed as the heading of a full description.

Phrase-level elements, such as title, name, date, or the specialized elements origPlace and origDate, can also be used within a head element, but it should be remembered that the head element is intended principally to contain a heading. More structured information concerning the contents, physical form, or history of the manuscript should be given within the specialized elements described below, msContents, physDesc, history, etc. However, in simple cases, the p element may also be used to supply an unstructured collection of such information, as in the example given above ( 1 Manuscript Description Metadata.

A manuscript may often contain multiple works by multiple authors. The head element should only be used to provide summary information:
<head>
 <author>Hildegard of Bingen</author> et alii, <title>Opera varia</title>; <origPlace>Heidelberg</origPlace>, <origDate>1455</origDate>.
</head>
which should be supported by a more detailed description using the msContents element described in the next section.

1.4 Intellectual Content

The msContents element is used to describe the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part. It comprises either a series of informal prose paragraphs or a series of msItem elements, each of which provides a more detailed description of a single item contained within the manuscript. These may be prefaced, if desired, by a summary element, which is especially useful where one wishes to provide an overview of a manuscript's contents and describe only some of the items in detail.
  • msContents (manuscript contents) describes the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of structured manuscript items.
  • msItem (manuscript item) describes an individual work or item within the intellectual content of a manuscript or manuscript part.
In the simplest case, only a brief description may be provided, as in the following examples:
<msContents>
 <p>A collection of Lollard sermons</p>
</msContents>
<msContents>
 <p>Atlas of the world from Western Europe and Africa to Indochina,
   containing 27 maps and 26 tables</p>
</msContents>
<msContents>
 <p>Biblia sacra: Antiguo y Nuevo Testamento, con prefacios, prólogos
   y argumentos de san Jerónimo y de otros. Interpretaciones de los
   nombres hebreos.</p>
</msContents>
This description may of course be expanded to include any of the TEI elements generally available within a p element, such as title, bibl, or list. More usually, however, each individual work within a manuscript will be given its own description, using the msItem element described in the next section, as in the following example:
<msContents>
 <msItem n="1">
  <locus>fols. 5r -7v</locus>
  <title>An ABC</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope type="pages">239</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="2">
  <locus>fols. 7v -8v</locus>
  <title xml:lang="fr">Lenvoy de Chaucer a Scogan</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope type="pages">3747</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="3">
  <locus>fol. 8v</locus>
  <title>Truth</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope type="pages">809</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="4">
  <locus>fols. 8v-10v</locus>
  <title>Birds Praise of Love</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope type="pages">1506</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="5">
  <locus>fols. 10v -11v</locus>
  <title xml:lang="la">De amico ad amicam</title>
  <title xml:lang="la">Responcio</title>
  <bibl>
   <title>IMEV</title>
   <biblScope type="pages">16 &amp; 19</biblScope>
  </bibl>
 </msItem>
 <msItem n="6">
  <locus>fols. 14r-126v</locus>
  <title>Troilus and Criseyde</title>
  <note>Bk. 1:71-Bk. 5:1701, with additional losses due to
     mutilation throughout</note>
 </msItem>
</msContents>

1.4.1 The <msItem> Element

Each discrete item in a manuscript or manuscript part can be described within a distinct msItem and may be classified using the class attribute.

These are the possible component elements of msItem
  • author in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of the author(s), personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority.
  • respStmt (statement of responsibility) supplies a statement of responsibility for the intellectual content of a text, edition, recording, or series, where the specialized elements for authors, editors, etc. do not suffice or do not apply.
  • title contains a title for any kind of work.
  • rubric contains the text of any rubric or heading attached to a particular manuscript item, that is, a string of words through which a manuscript signals the beginning of a text division, often with an assertion as to its author and title, which is in some way set off from the text itself, usually in red ink, or by use of different size or type of script, or some other such visual device.
  • incipit contains the incipit of a manuscript item, that is the opening words of the text proper, exclusive of any rubric which might precede it, of sufficient length to identify the work uniquely; such incipts were, in fomer times, frequently used a means of reference to a work, in place of a title.
  • quote (quotation) contains a phrase or passage attributed by the narrator or author to some agency external to the text.
  • explicit contains the explicit of a manuscript item, that is, the closing words of the text proper, exclusive of any rubric or colophon which might follow it.
  • finalRubric contains the string of words that denotes the end of a text division, often with an assertion as to its author and title, usually set off from the text itself by red ink, by a different size or type of script, or by some other such visual device.
  • colophon contains the colophon of a manuscript item: that is, a statement providing information regarding the date, place, agency, or reason for production of the manuscript.
  • decoNote (note on decoration) contains a note describing either a decorative component of a manuscript, or a fairly homogenous class of such components.
  • listBibl (citation list) contains a list of bibliographic citations of any kind.
  • bibl (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged.
  • filiation contains information concerning the manuscript's filiation, i.e. its relationship to other surviving manuscripts of the same text, its protographs, antigraphs and apographs.
  • note contains a note or annotation.
  • textLang (text language) describes the languages and writing systems used by a manuscript (as opposed to its description, which is described in the langUsage element).
If early printed material or incunables are described using this schema, the msItem should be used to record details of each distinct work contained by the incunable. In this situation, the following extra elements may be found useful to transcribe relevant details from the original titlepage:
  • docAuthor (document author) contains the name of the author of the document, as given on the title page (often but not always contained in a byline).
  • docTitle (document title) contains the title of a document, including all its constituents, as given on a title page.
  • docImprint (document imprint) contains the imprint statement (place and date of publication, publisher name), as given (usually) at the foot of a title page.
These elements are also available within the msItem element.

In addition, an msItem may contain nested msItem elements.

Untagged running text is not permitted directly within an msItem, unless it is given within a p element, in which case none of the other component elements listed above is permitted.

The elements msContents, msItem, incipit, and explicit are all members of the class att.msExcerpt from which they inherit the defective attribute.
  • att.msExcerpt (manuscript excerpt) provides attributes used to describe excerpts from a manuscript placed in a description thereof.
    defective indicates whether the passage being quoted is defective, i.e. incomplete through loss or damage.
This attribute can be used for example with collections of fragments, where each fragment is given as a separate msItem and the first and last words of each fragment are transcribed as defective incipits and explicits.

1.4.2 Authors and Titles

When used within a manuscript description, the title element should be used to supply a regularized form of the item's title, as distinct from any rubric quoted from the manuscript. If the item concerned has a standardized distinctive title, e.g. Roman de la Rose, then this should be the form given as content of the title element, with the value of the type attribute given as uniform. If no uniform title exists for an item, or none has been yet identified, or if one wishes to provide a general designation of the contents, then a ‘supplied’ title can be given, e.g. missal, in which case the type attribute on the title should be given the value supplied.

Similarly, if used within a manuscript description, the author element should always contain the normalized form of an author's name, irrespective of how (or whether) this form of the name is cited in the manuscript. If it is desired to retain the form of the author's name as given in the manuscript, this should be given in the docAuthor element, or as a distinct name element, within the text at the point where it occurs.

Note that the key or ref attributes can be used, on titles and on author names as on names in general, to link the name to a more detailed description of the person or work concerned (see further 1.1.6 Names of Persons, Places, and Organizations).

The respStmt element can be used to supply the name and role of a person other than the author who is responsible for some aspect of the intellectual content of the manuscript:
<author>Diogenes Laertius</author>
<respStmt>
 <resp>in the translation of</resp>
 <name type="person">Ambrogio Traversari</name>
</respStmt>
The resp element is also a member of the att.canonical class, from which it inherits the key attribute. For ENRICH purposes, this may be used to supply a standard relationship code for the kind of responsibility concerned, as defined in the list maintained at http://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/relacode.html :
<respStmt>
 <resp key="trl">přeložil</resp>
 <name type="person">John Enrich</name>
</respStmt>
The respStmt element can also be used where there is a discrepancy between the author of an item as given in the manuscript and the accepted scholarly view, as in the following example:
<title type="supplied">Sermons on the Epistles and the Gospels</title>
<respStmt>
 <resp>here erroneously attributed to</resp>
 <name type="person">St. Bonaventura</name>
</respStmt>
Note that such attributions of authorship, both correct and incorrect, are frequently found in the rubric or final rubric (and occasionally also elsewhere in the text), and can therefore be transcribed and included in the description, if desired, using the rubric, finalRubric, or quote elements, as appropriate.

1.4.3 Rubrics, Incipits, Explicits, and Other Quotations from the Text

It is customary in a manuscript description to record the opening and closing words of a text as well as any headings or colophons it might have, and the specialised elements rubric, incipit, explicit, finalRubric, and colophon are available within msItem for doing so, along with the more general quote, for recording other bits of the text not covered by these elements. Each of these elements has the same substructure, containing a mixture of phrase-level elements and plain text. A locus element can be included within each, in order to specify the location of the component, as in the following example:
<msContents>
 <msItem>
  <locus>f. 1-223</locus>
  <author>Radulphus Flaviacensis</author>
  <title>Expositio super Leviticum </title>
  <incipit>
   <locus>f. 1r</locus>
     Forte Hervei monachi</incipit>
  <explicit>
   <locus>f. 223v</locus>
     Benedictio salis et aquae</explicit>
 </msItem>
</msContents>
In the following example, standard TEI elements for the transcription of primary sources have been used to mark the expansion of abbreviations and other features present in the original:
<msItem defective="true">
 <locus>ff. 1r-24v</locus>
 <title type="uniform">Ágrip af Noregs konunga sǫgum</title>
 <incipit defective="true">
  <lb/>regi oc h<ex>ann</ex> seti
   ho<gap reason="illegible" quantity="7" unit="mm"/>
  <lb/>sc heim se<ex>m</ex> þio</incipit>
 <explicit defective="true">h<ex>on</ex> hev<ex>er</ex>
  <ex>oc</ex> þa buit hesta .ij. <lb/>annan viþ fé en
   h<ex>on</ex>o<ex>m</ex> annan til reiþ<ex>ar</ex>
 </explicit>
</msItem>
Note here also the use of the defective attribute on incipit and explicit to indicate that the text begins and ends defectively.

The xml:lang attribute for colophon, explicit, incipit, quote, and rubric may always be used to identify the language of the text quoted, if this is different from the default language specified by the mainLang attribute on textLang.

1.4.4 Filiation

The filiation element can be used to provide information on the relationship between the manuscript and other surviving manuscripts of the same text, either specifically or in a general way, as in the following example:
<msItem>
 <locus>118rb</locus>
 <incipit>Ecce morior cum nichil horum ... <ref>[Dn 13, 43]</ref>. Verba ista dixit Susanna de illis</incipit>
 <explicit>ut bonum comune conservatur.</explicit>
 <bibl>Schneyer 3, 436 (Johannes Contractus OFM)</bibl>
 <filiation>weitere Überl. Uppsala C 181, 35r.</filiation>
</msItem>

1.4.5 Text Classification

One or more text classification or text-type codes may be specified, either for the whole of the msContents element, or for one or more of its constituent msItem elements, using the class attribute as specified above:
<msContents>
 <msItem n="1" defective="false" class="#law">
  <locus from="1v" to="71v">1v-71v</locus>
  <title type="uniform">Jónsbók</title>
  <incipit>Magnus m<ex>ed</ex> guds miskun Noregs
     k<ex>onungu</ex>r</incipit>
  <explicit>en<ex>n</ex> u<ex>ir</ex>da
     þo t<ex>il</ex> fullra aura</explicit>
 </msItem>
</msContents>
The value of the class attribute should specify the identifier used for the appropriate classification within a taxonomy element, defined in the classDecl element of the TEI Header ( http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD55 ), as shown here:
<classDecl>
 <taxonomy>
<!-- -->
  <category xml:id="law">
   <catDesc>Laws</catDesc>
  </category>
<!-- -->
 </taxonomy>
</classDecl>

1.4.6 Languages and Writing Systems

The textLang element should be used to provide information about the languages used within a manuscript item. It may take the form of a simple note, as in the following example:
<textLang mainLang="chu">Old Church Slavonic, written in Cyrillic script.</textLang>
Element textLang change
For validation and indexing purposes, the mainLang attribute must be supplied: it takes the same range of values as the global xml:lang attribute. When a manuscript item contains material in more than one language, the mainLang attribute should be used only for the chief language. Other languages used may be specified using the otherLangs attribute as in the following example:
<textLang mainLang="chu" otherLangs="RUS HEL">Mostly Old Church
Slavonic, with some Russian and Greek material</textLang>
Since Old Church Slavonic may be written in either Cyrillic or Glagolitic scripts, and even occasionally in both within the same manuscript, it might be preferable to use a more explicit identifier:
<textLang mainLang="chu-Cyrs">Old Church Slavonic in Cyrillic script</textLang>

The form and scope of language identifiers recommended by these Guidelines is based on the IANA standard described at http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/html/CH.html#CHSH and should be followed throughout. Where additional detail is needed correctly to describe a language, or to discuss its deployment in a given text, this should be done using the langUsage element in the TEI Header, within which individual language elements document the languages used: see http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD41 .

Note that the language element defines a particular combination of human language and writing system. Only one language element may be supplied for each such combination. Standard TEI practice also allows this element to be referenced by any element using the global xml:lang attribute in order to specify the language applicable to the content of that element. For example, assuming that language elements have been defined with the identifiers fr (for French), la (for Latin), and de (for German), a manuscript description written in French which specifies that a particular manuscript contains predominantly German but also some Latin material, might have a textLang element like the following:
<textLang xml:lang="fr" mainLang="de" otherLangs="la">allemand et latin</textLang>

1.5 Physical Description

Under the general heading ‘physical description’ we subsume a large number of different aspects generally regarded as useful in the description of a given manuscript. These include:

Most manuscript descriptions touch on several of these categories of information though few include them all, and not all distinguish them as clearly as we propose here. In particular, it is often the case that an existing description will include within a single paragraph, or even sentence, information for which we propose distinct elements. In this case, if rewriting is not an option, the existing prose must be marked up simply as a series of p elements, directly within the physDesc element.

The physDesc element may thus be used in either of two distinct ways. It may contain a series of paragraphs addressing topics listed above and similar ones. Alternatively, it may act as a container for any choice of the more specialized elements described in the remainder of this section, each of which itself contains a series of paragraphs, and may also have more specific attributes. If the two ways are combined in a single description, care should be taken to avoid duplication and all paragraphs of generic description must precede the first of the more specialised elements.

1.5.1 Object Description

The objectDesc element is used to group together those parts of the physical description which relate specifically to the text-bearing object, its format, constitution, layout, etc. The form attribute is used to indicate the specific type of writing vehicle being described: it must be supplied, and its value must be one of codex, scroll, leaf, or other. If no value is supplied, the value codex will be assumed.
Element objectDesc change
The objectDesc element has two parts: a description of the support, i.e. the physical carrier on which the text is inscribed; and a description of the layout, i.e. the way text is organized on the carrier.
Taking these in turn, the description of the support is tagged using the following elements, each of which is discussed in more detail below:
  • supportDesc (support description) groups elements describing the physical support for the written part of a manuscript.
    material a short project-defined name for the material composing the majority of the support
  • support contains a description of the materials etc. which make up the physical support for the written part of a manuscript.
  • extent describes the approximate size of a text as stored on some carrier medium, whether digital or non-digital, specified in any convenient units.
  • collation contains a description of how the leaves or bifolia are physically arranged.
  • foliation describes the numbering system or systems used to count the leaves or pages in a codex.
  • condition contains a description of the physical condition of the manuscript.

Each of these elements contains paragraphs relating to the topic concerned. Within these paragraphs, phrase-level elements (in particular those discussed above at 1.1 Phrase-level Elements), may be used to tag specific terms of interest if so desired.

The form attribute on supportDesc is used to summarize briefly the materials used for the support. For ENRICH purposes, it must have one of the following values: perg (parchment), chart (paper), mixed, unknown.
Element supportDesc change
Here is a simple example:
<objectDesc form="codex">
 <supportDesc material="mixed">
  <p>Mostly <material>paper</material>, with watermarks
  <watermark>unicorn</watermark> (<ref>Briquet 9993</ref>) and
  <watermark>ox</watermark> (close to <ref>Briquet 2785</ref>).
     The first and last leaf of each quire, with the exception of
     quires xvi and xviii, are constituted by bifolia of parchment,
     and all seven miniatures have been painted on inserted
     singletons of parchment.</p>
 </supportDesc>
</objectDesc>

This example combines information which might alternatively be more precisely tagged using the more specific elements described in the following subsections.

1.5.1.1 Support
The support element groups together information about the physical carrier. Typically, for western manuscripts, this will entail discussion of the material (parchment, paper, or a combination of the two) written on. For paper, a discussion of any watermarks present may also be useful. If this discussion makes reference to standard catalogues of such items, these may be tagged using the standard ref element as in the following example:
<support>
 <p>
  <material>Paper</material> with watermark: <watermark>anchor in a circle
     with star on top</watermark>, <watermark>countermark B-B with
     trefoil</watermark> similar to <ref>Moschin, Anchor N 1680</ref>
  <date>1570-1585</date>.</p>
</support>
1.5.1.2 Extent
The extent element, defined in the TEI header, may also be used in a manuscript description to specify the number of leaves a manuscript contains, as in the following example:
<extent>ii + 97 + ii</extent>
Information regarding the size of the leaves may be specifically marked using the phrase level dimensions element, as in the following example, or left as plain prose.
<extent>ii + 321 leaves
<dimensions type="leaf" unit="cm">
  <height>35</height>
  <width>27</width>
 </dimensions>
</extent>
1.5.1.3 Collation
The collation element should be used to provide a description of a book's current and original structure, that is, the arrangement of its leaves and quires. This information may be conveyed using informal prose, or any appropriate notational convention. Although no specific notation is defined here, an appropriate element to enclose such an expression would be the formula element, which is provided when the figures module is included in a schema. Here are some examples of different ways of treating collation:
<collation>
 <p>
  <formula>1-3:8, 4:6, 5-13:8</formula>
 </p>
</collation>
<collation>
 <p>There are now four gatherings, the first, second and fourth originally consisting of
   eight leaves, the third of seven. A fifth gathering thought to have followed has left no trace.
 <list>
   <item>Gathering I consists of 7 leaves, a first leaf, originally conjoint with <locus>fol. 7</locus>,
       having been cut away leaving only a narrow strip along the gutter; the others, <locus>fols 1</locus>
       and <locus>6</locus>, <locus>2</locus> and <locus>5</locus>, and <locus>3</locus> and <locus>4</locus>,
       are bifolia.</item>
   <item>Gathering II consists of 8 leaves, 4 bifolia.</item>
   <item>Gathering III consists of 7 leaves; <locus>fols 16</locus> and <locus>22</locus> are conjoint,
       the others singletons.</item>
   <item>Gathering IV consists of 2 leaves, a bifolium.</item>
  </list>
 </p>
</collation>
<collation>
 <p>I (1, 2+9, 3+8, 4+7, 5+6, 10); II (11, 12+17, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19).</p>
</collation>
<collation>
 <p>
  <formula>1-5.8 6.6 (catchword, f. 46, does not match following
     text) 7-8.8 9.10, 11.2 (through f. 82) 12-14.8 15.8(-7)</formula>
 </p>
</collation>
1.5.1.4 Foliation
The foliation element may be used to indicate the scheme, medium or location of folio, page, column, or line numbers written in the manuscript, frequently including a statement about when and, if known, by whom, the numbering was done.
<foliation>
 <p>Neuere Foliierung, die auch das Vorsatzblatt mitgezählt hat.</p>
</foliation>
<foliation>
 <p>Folio numbers were added in brown ink by Árni Magnússon
   ca. 1720-1730 in the upper right corner of all recto-pages.</p>
</foliation>
Where a manuscript contains traces of more than one foliation, each should be recorded as a distinct foliation element and optionally given a distinct value for its xml:id attribute. The locus element discussed in 1.1.5 References to Locations within a Manuscript can then indicate which foliation scheme is being cited by means of its scheme attribute, which points to this identifier:
<foliation xml:id="original">
 <p>Original foliation in red roman numerals in the middle of
   the outer margin of each recto</p>
</foliation>
<foliation xml:id="modern">
 <p>Foliated in pencil in the top right
   corner of each recto page.</p>
</foliation>
<!-- ... -->
<locus scheme="#modern">ff 1-20</locus>
1.5.1.5 Condition
The condition element is used to summarize the overall physical state of a manuscript, in particular where such information is not recorded elsewhere in the description. It should not, however, be used to describe changes or repairs to a manuscript, as these are more appropriately described as a part of its custodial history (see 1.7.1.2 Availability and Custodial History). When used solely to describe the condition of the binding, it should appear within the bindingDesc element ( 1.5.3.1 Binding Descriptions).
<supportDesc>
 <condition>
  <p>The manuscript shows signs of damage from water and mould on its outermost leaves.</p>
 </condition>
</supportDesc>
<condition>
 <p>Despite tears on many of the leaves the codex is reasonably well preserved.
   The top and the bottom of f. 1 is damaged, and only a thin slip is left of the original second
   leaf (now foliated as 1bis). The lower margin of f. 92 has been cut away. There is a lacuna of
   one leaf between ff. 193 and 194. The manuscript ends defectively (there are approximately six
   leaves missing).</p>
</condition>
1.5.1.6 Layout Description
The second part of the objectDesc element is the layoutDesc element, which is used to describe and document the mise-en-page of the manuscript, that is the way in which text and illumination are arranged on the page, specifying for example the number of written, ruled, or pricked lines and columns per page, size of margins, distinct blocks such as glosses, commentaries, etc. This may be given as a simple series of paragraphs. Alternatively, one or more different layouts may be identified within a single manuscript, each described by its own layout element.
  • layoutDesc (layout description) collects the set of layout descriptions applicable to a manuscript.
  • layout describes how text is laid out on the page, including information about any ruling, pricking, or other evidence of page-preparation techniques.

Where the layout element is used, the layout will often be sufficiently regular for the attributes on this element to convey all that is necessary; more usually however a more detailed treatment will be required. The attributes are provided as a convenient shorthand for commonly occurring cases, and should not be used except where the layout is regular. The value NA (not-applicable) should be used for cases where the layout is either very irregular, or where it cannot be characterized simply in terms of lines and columns, for example, where blocks of commentary and text are arranged in a regular but complex pattern on each page

The following examples indicate the range of possibilities:
<layout ruledLines="25 32" columns="1">
 <p>Most pages have between 25 and 32 long lines ruled in lead.</p>
</layout>
<layout columns="1" writtenLines="24">
 <p>Written in one column throughout; 24 lines per page.</p>
</layout>
<layout columns="1">
 <p>Written in a single column, with 8 lines of text and interlinear glosses in
   the centre, and up to 26 lines of gloss in the outer two columns. Double
   vertical bounding lines ruled in hard point on hair side. Text lines ruled
   faintly in lead. Remains of prickings in upper, lower, and outer (for 8 lines
   of text only) margins.</p>
</layout>
Note that if (as in the last example above) no value is given for the columns attribute, the assumption is that there is a single column of writing on each page.
Element layout change
Where multiple layout elements are supplied, the scope for each specification can be indicated by means of locus elements within the content of the element, as in the following example:
<layoutDesc>
 <layout ruledLines="25 32" columns="1">
  <p>On <locus from="1r" to="202v">fols 1r-200v</locus> and
  <locus from="210r" to="212v">fols 210r-212v</locus> there are
     between 25 and 32 ruled lines.</p>
 </layout>
 <layout ruledLines="34 50" columns="1">
  <p>On <locus from="203r" to="209v">fols 203r-209v</locus> there are between 34
     and 50 ruled lines.</p>
 </layout>
</layoutDesc>

1.5.2 Writing, Decoration, and Other Notations

The second group of elements within a structured physical description concerns aspects of the writing, illumination, or other notation (notably, music) found in a manuscript, including additions made in later hands — the ‘text’, as it were, as opposed to the carrier.
  • handDesc (description of hands) contains a description of all the different kinds of writing used in a manuscript.
    hands specifies the number of distinct hands identified within the manuscript
  • handNote (note on hand) describes a particular style or hand distinguished within a manuscript.
    script characterizes the particular script or writing style used by this hand, for example secretary, copperplate, Chancery, Italian, etc.
    scope specifies how widely this hand is used in the manuscript.
  • typeDesc contains a description of the typefaces or other aspects of the printing of an incunable or other printed source.
  • typeNote describes a particular font or other significant typographic feature distinguished within the description of a printed resource.
  • decoDesc (decoration description) contains a description of the decoration of a manuscript, either as a sequence of paragraphs, or as a sequence of topically organised decoNote elements.
  • decoNote (note on decoration) contains a note describing either a decorative component of a manuscript, or a fairly homogenous class of such components.
  • musicNotation contains description of type of musical notation.
  • additions contains a description of any significant additions found within a manuscript, such as marginalia or other annotations.
1.5.2.1 Writing
The handDesc element can contain a short description of the general characteristics of the writing observed in a manuscript, as in the following example:
<handDesc>
 <p>Written in a <term>late Caroline minuscule</term>; versals in a
   form of <term>rustic capitals</term>; although the marginal and
   interlinear gloss is written in varying shades of ink that are
   not those of the main text, text and gloss appear to have been
   copied during approximately the same time span.</p>
</handDesc>

Note the use of the term element to mark specific technical terms within the context of the handDesc element.

Where several distinct hands have been identified, this fact can be registered by using the hands attribute, as in the following example:
<handDesc hands="2">
 <p>The manuscript is written in two contemporary hands, otherwise
   unknown, but clearly those of practised scribes. Hand I writes
   ff. 1r-22v and hand II ff. 23 and 24. Some scholars, notably
   Verner Dahlerup and Hreinn Benediktsson, have argued for a third hand
   on f. 24, but the evidence for this is insubstantial.</p>
</handDesc>
Where more specific information about one or more of the hands identified is to be recorded, the handNote element should be used, as in the following example:
<handDesc hands="3">
 <handNote xml:id="Eirsp-1" scope="minor" script="textualis">
  <p>The first part of the manuscript,
  <locus from="1v" to="72v:4">fols 1v-72v:4</locus>, is written in a practised
     Icelandic Gothic bookhand. This hand is not found elsewhere.</p>
 </handNote>
 <handNote xml:id="Eirsp-2" scope="major" script="textualis">
  <p>The second part of the manuscript, <locus from="72v:4" to="194v">fols
       72v:4-194</locus>, is written in a hand contemporary with the first; it can
     also be found in a fragment of <title>Knýtlinga saga</title>,
  <ref>AM 20b II fol.</ref>.</p>
 </handNote>
 <handNote xml:id="Eirsp-3" scope="minor" script="cursiva">
  <p>The third hand has written the majority of the chapter headings.
     This hand has been identified as the one also found in <ref>AM
       221 fol.</ref>.</p>
 </handNote>
</handDesc>

As the above example shows, the attributes script and scope are both required on handNote. For ENRICH purposes, the script attribute must take one of the following values: carolmin, textualis, cursiva, hybrida, humbook, humcursiva, or other, and the scope attribute must take one of the following values: sole, major, minor.

If early printed material or incunables are described using this schema, the typeDesc and typeNote elements may be used (in the same way as handDesc and handNote) to record information about the typefaces etc. of interest in the source.
<typeDesc>
 <summary>Uses a mixture of Roman and Black Letter types.</summary>
 <typeNote>Antiqua typeface, showing influence of Jenson's Venetian
   fonts.</typeNote>
 <typeNote>The black letter face is a variant of Schwabacher.</typeNote>
</typeDesc>
Both typeDesc and handDesc may be supplied, for example in the case where a printed work has been annotated by a number of hands.

The locus element, discussed in section 1.1.5 References to Locations within a Manuscript, may be used to specify which parts of a manuscript are written by a given hand.

In addition, when a full or partial transcription of a manuscript is available in addition to the manuscript description, the handShift element described in http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/PH.html#PHDH can be used to link the relevant parts of the transcription to the appropriate handNote or typeNote element in the description: for example, at the point in the transcript where the second hand listed above starts (i.e. at folio 72v:4), we might insert <handShift new="#Eirsp-2"/>.

No <typeShift> element is proposed; if it is felt inappropriate to use handShift for this purpose, the generic <mileStone> may be used.

1.5.2.2 Decoration

It can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between aspects of a manuscript which are purely physical and those which form part of its intellectual content. This is particularly true of illuminations and other forms of decoration in a manuscript. We propose the following elements for the purpose of delimiting discussion of these aspects within a manuscript description, and for convenience locate them all within the physical description, despite the fact that the illustrative features of a manuscript will in many cases also be seen as constitutiing part of its intellectual content.

The decoDesc element may contain simply one or more paragraphs summarizing the overall nature of the decorative features of the manuscript, as in the following example:
<decoDesc>
 <p>The decoration comprises two full page miniatures, perhaps added
   by the original owner, or slightly later; the original major decoration
   consists of twenty-three large miniatures, illustrating the divisions of
   the Passion narrative and the start of the major texts, and the major
   divisions of the Hours; seventeen smaller miniatures, illustrating the
   suffrages to saints; and seven historiated initials, illustrating
   the pericopes and major prayers.</p>
</decoDesc>
Alternatively, it may contain a series of more specific typed decoNote elements, each summarizing a particular aspect or individual instance of the decoration present, for example the use of miniatures, initials (historiated or otherwise), borders, diagrams, etc. The scope of the description is indicated by the type attribute which, for ENRICH purposes, must take one of the following values: border, diagram, initial, marginal, miniature, mixed, paratext, secondary, other.
Element decoNote change
Here is a simple example:
<decoDesc>
 <decoNote type="miniature">
  <p>One full-page miniature, facing the beginning of the first
     Penitential Psalm.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote type="initial">
  <p>One seven-line historiated initial, commencing the first
     Penitential Psalm.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote type="initial">
  <p>Six four-line decorated initials, commencing the second through the
     seventh Penitential Psalm.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote type="initial">
  <p>Some three hundred two-line versal initials with pen-flourishes,
     commencing the psalm verses.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote type="border">
  <p>Four-sided border decoration surrounding the miniatures and three-sided
     border decoration accompanying the historiated and decorated initials.</p>
 </decoNote>
</decoDesc>
Where more exact indexing of the decorative content of a manuscript is required, the standard TEI elements term or index may be used within the prose description to supply or delimit appropriate iconographic terms, as in the following example:
<decoDesc>
 <decoNote type="miniature">
  <p>Fourteen large miniatures with arched tops, above five lines of text:
  <list>
    <item>
     <locus>fol. 14r</locus>Pericopes. <term>St. John writing on
           Patmos</term>, with the Eagle holding his ink-pot and pen-case; some
         flaking of pigment, especially in the sky</item>
    <item>
     <locus>fol. 26r</locus>Hours of the Virgin, Matins.
    <term>Annunciation</term>; Gabriel and the Dove to the right</item>
    <item>
     <locus>fol. 60r</locus>Prime. <term>Nativity</term>; the
    <term>Virgin and Joseph adoring the Child</term>
    </item>
    <item>
     <locus>fol. 66r</locus>Terce. <term>Annunciation to the
           Shepherds</term>, one with <term>bagpipes</term>
    </item>
<!-- ... -->
   </list>
  </p>
 </decoNote>
</decoDesc>
1.5.2.3 Musical Notation
Where a manuscript contains music, the musicNotation element may be used to describe the form of notation employed, as in the following example:
<musicNotation>
 <p>Square notation on 4-line red staves.</p>
</musicNotation>
<musicNotation>
 <p>Neumes in campo aperto of the St. Gall type.</p>
</musicNotation>
1.5.2.4 Additions and Marginalia
The additions element can be used to list or describe any additions to the manuscript, such as marginalia, scribblings, doodles, etc., which are considered to be of interest or importance. Such topics may also be discussed or referenced elsewhere in a description, for example in the history element, in cases where the marginalia provide evidence of ownership. Some examples follow:
<additions>
 <p>Doodles on most leaves, possibly by children, and often quite amusing.</p>
</additions>
<additions>
 <p xml:lang="fr">Quelques annotations marginales des XVIe et XVIIe s.</p>
</additions>
<additions>
 <p>The text of this manuscript is not interpolated with sentences from
   Royal decrees promulgated in 1294, 1305 and 1314. In the margins, however,
   another somewhat later scribe has added the relevant paragraphs of these
   decrees, see pp. 8, 24, 44, 47 etc.</p>
 <p>As a humorous gesture the scribe in one opening of the manuscript, pp. 36
   and 37, has prolonged the lower stems of one letter f and five letters þ
   and has them drizzle down the margin.</p>
</additions>
<additions>
 <p>Spaces for initials and chapter headings were left by the scribe but not filled in.
   A later, probably fifteenth-century, hand has added initials and chapter headings in
   greenish-coloured ink on fols <locus>8r</locus>, <locus>8v</locus>, <locus>9r</locus>,
 <locus>10r</locus> and <locus>11r</locus>. Although a few of these chapter headings are
   now rather difficult to read, most can be made out, e.g. fol. <locus>8rb</locus>
  <quote xml:lang="is">floti ast<ex>ri</ex>d<ex>ar</ex>
  </quote>; fol. <locus>9rb</locus>
  <quote xml:lang="is">v<ex>m</ex> olaf conung</quote>, and fol. <locus>10ra</locus>
  <quote xml:lang="is">Gipti<ex>n</ex>g ol<ex>a</ex>fs k<ex>onun</ex>gs</quote>.</p>
 <p>The manuscript contains the following marginalia:
 <list>
   <item>Fol. <locus>4v</locus>, left margin: <quote xml:lang="is">hialmadr <ex>ok</ex>
     <lb/>brynjadr</quote>,
       in a fifteenth-cenury hand, imitating an addition made to the text by the scribe at this point.</item>
   <item>Fol. <locus>5r</locus>, lower margin: <quote xml:lang="is">þ<ex>e</ex>tta þiki
         m<ex>er</ex> v<ex>er</ex>a gott blek en<ex>n</ex>da kan<ex>n</ex> ek icki
         betr sia</quote>, in a fifteenth-century hand, probably the same as that on the previous page.</item>
   <item>Fol. <locus>9v</locus>, bottom margin: <quote xml:lang="is">þessa bok uilda eg <sic>gæt</sic>
         lært med <lb/>an Gud gefe myer Gott ad <lb/>læra</quote>; seventeenth-century hand.</item>
  </list>
 </p>
 <p>There are in addition a number of illegible scribbles in a later hand (or hands) on fols
 <locus>2r</locus>, <locus>3r</locus>, <locus>5v</locus> and <locus>19r</locus>.</p>
</additions>

1.5.3 Bindings, Seals, and Additional Material

The third major component of the physical description relates to supporting but distinct physical components, such as bindings, seals and accompanying material. These may be described using the following specialist elements:
  • bindingDesc (binding description) describes the present and former bindings of a manuscript, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of distinct binding elements, one for each binding of the manuscript.
  • binding contains a description of one binding, i.e. type of covering, boards, etc. applied to a manuscript.
  • condition contains a description of the physical condition of the manuscript.
  • sealDesc (seal description) describes the seals or other external items attached to a manuscript, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of distinct seal elements, possibly with additional decoNotes.
  • seal contains a description of one seal or similar attachment applied to a manuscript.
  • accMat (accompanying material) contains details of any significant additional material which may be closely associated with the manuscript being described, such as non-contemporaneous documents or fragments bound in with the manuscript at some earlier historical period.
1.5.3.1 Binding Descriptions
The bindingDesc element contains a description of the state of the present and former bindings of a manuscript, including information about its material, any distinctive marks, and provenance information. This may be given as a series of paragraphs if only one binding is being described, or as a series of distinct binding elements, each describing a distinct binding, where these are separately described. For example:
<bindingDesc>
 <p>Sewing not visible; tightly rebound over 19th-century pasteboards, reusing
   panels of 16th-century brown leather with gilt tooling à la fanfare, Paris
   c. 1580-90, the centre of each cover inlaid with a 17th-century oval medallion
   of red morocco tooled in gilt (perhaps replacing the identifying mark of a
   previous owner); the spine similarly tooled, without raised bands or title-piece;
   coloured endbands; the edges of the leaves and boards gilt. Boxed.</p>
</bindingDesc>
Within a binding description, the elements decoNote and is condition are available as an alternatives to p for paragraphs dealing exclusively with information about decorative features of a binding, as in the following example:
<binding>
 <p>Bound, s. XVIII (?), in <material>diced russia leather</material>
   retaining most of the original 15th century metal ornaments (but with
   some replacements) as well as the heavy wooden boards.</p>
 <decoNote>
  <p>On each cover: alternating circular stamps of the Holy Monogram,
     a sunburst, and a flower.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <decoNote>
  <p>On the cornerpieces, one of which is missing, a rectangular stamp
     of the Agnus Dei.</p>
 </decoNote>
 <condition>Front and back leather inlaid panels very badly worn.</condition>
 <p>Rebacked during the 19th century.</p>
</binding>
1.5.3.2 Seals
The sealDesc element supplies information about the seal(s) attached to documents to guarantee their integrity, or to show authentication of the issuer or consent of the participants. It may contain one or more paragraphs summarizing the overall nature of the seals, or may contain one or more seal elements.
<sealDesc>
 <seal n="1" type="pendant" subtype="cauda_duplex">
  <p>Round seal of <name type="person">Anders Olufsen</name> in black wax:
  <bibl>
    <ref>DAS 930</ref>
   </bibl>. Parchment tag, on which is written:
  <quote>pertinere nos predictorum placiti nostri iusticarii precessorum dif</quote>.</p>
 </seal>
 <seal n="2" type="pendant" subtype="cauda_duplex">
  <p>The seal of <name type="person">Jens Olufsen</name> in black wax:
  <bibl>
    <ref>DAS 1061</ref>
   </bibl>. Legend: <quote>S IOHANNES OLAVI</quote>.
     Parchment tag on which is written: <quote>Woldorp Iohanne G</quote>.</p>
 </seal>
</sealDesc>
1.5.3.3 Accompanying Material
The circumstance may arise where material not originally part of a manuscript is bound into or otherwise kept with a manuscript. In some cases this material would best be treated in a separate msPart element (see 1.8 Manuscript Parts below). There are, however, cases where the additional matter is not self-evidently a distinct manuscript: it might, for example, be a set of notes by a later scholar, or a file of correspondence relating to the manuscript. The accMat element is provided as a holder for this kind of information.
  • accMat (accompanying material) contains details of any significant additional material which may be closely associated with the manuscript being described, such as non-contemporaneous documents or fragments bound in with the manuscript at some earlier historical period.
Here is an example of the use of this element, describing a note by the Icelandic manuscript collector Árni Magnússon which has been bound with the manuscript:
<accMat>
 <p>A slip in Árni Magnússon's hand has been stuck to the
   pastedown on the inside front cover; the text reads:
 <quote xml:lang="is">Þidreks Søgu þessa hefi eg
     feiged af Sekreterer Wielandt Anno 1715 i Kaupmanna høfn. Hun er,
     sem eg sie, Copia af Austfirda bókinni (Eidagás) en<ex>n</ex>
     ecki progenies Brædratungu bokarinnar. Og er þar fyrer eigi i
     allan<ex>n</ex> máta samhlioda þ<ex>eir</ex>re er
     Sr Jon Erlendz son hefer ritad fyrer Mag. Bryniolf. Þesse Þidreks
     Saga mun vera komin fra Sr Vigfuse á Helgafelle.</quote>
 </p>
</accMat>

1.6 History

The following elements are used to record information about the history of a manuscript:
  • history groups elements describing the full history of a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • origin contains any descriptive or other information concerning the origin of a manuscript or manuscript part.
  • provenance contains any descriptive or other information concerning a single identifiable episode during the history of a manuscript or manuscript part, after its creation but before its acquisition.
  • acquisition contains any descriptive or other information concerning the process by which a manuscript or manuscript part entered the holding institution.
The three components of the history element all have the same substructure, consisting of one or more paragraphs marked as p elements. Each of these three elements is also a member of the att.datable attribute class, itself a member of the att.datable.w3c class, and thus also carries the following optional attributes:
  • att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the W3C datatypes.
    notBefore specifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    notAfter specifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    from indicates the starting point of the period in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    to indicates the ending point of the period in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
    when supplies the value of the date or time in a standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.

Information about the origins of the manuscript, its place and date of writing, should be given as one or more paragraphs contained by a single origin element; following this, any available information on distinct stages in the history of the manuscript before its acquisition by its current holding institution should be included as paragraphs within one or more provenance elements. Finally, any information specific to the means by which the manuscript was acquired by its present owners should be given as paragraphs within the acquisition element.

Here is a fairly simple example of the use of this element:
<history>
 <origin>
  <p>Written in <origPlace>Durham</origPlace> during <origDate notBefore="1125" notAfter="1175">the
       mid-twelfth century</origDate>.</p>
 </origin>
 <provenance>
  <p>Recorded in two medieval catalogues of the books belonging
     to <name type="org">Durham Priory</name>, made in <date>1391</date> and
  <date>1405</date>.</p>
  <p>Given to <name type="person">W. Olleyf</name> by <name type="person">William
       Ebchester, Prior (1446-56)</name> and later belonged to <name type="person">Henry
       Dalton</name>, Prior of Holy Island (<name type="place">Lindisfarne</name>)
     according to inscriptions on ff. 4v and 5.</p>
 </provenance>
 <acquisition>
  <p>Presented to <name type="org">Trinity College</name> in
  <date>1738</date> by <name type="person">Thomas Gale</name> and
     his son <name type="person">Roger</name>.</p>
 </acquisition>
</history>
Here is a fuller example:
<history>
 <origin notBefore="1225" notAfter="1275">
  <p>Written in Spain or Portugal in the middle of the 13th century
     (the date 1042, given in a marginal note on f. 97v, cannot be correct.)</p>
 </origin>
 <provenance>
  <p>The Spanish scholar <name type="person">Benito Arias
       Montano</name> (1527-1598) has written his name on f. 97r, and may be
     presumed to have owned the manuscript. It came somehow into the
     possession of <foreign xml:lang="da">etatsråd</foreign>
   <name type="person">Holger Parsberg</name> (1636-1692), who has written his
     name twice, once on the front pastedown and once on f. 1r, the former dated
  <date>1680</date> and the latter <date>1682</date>. Following Parsberg's
     death the manuscript was bought by <foreign>etatsråd</foreign>
   <name type="person">Jens Rosenkrantz</name> (1640-1695) when Parsberg's
     library was auctioned off (23 October 1693).</p>
 </provenance>
 <acquisition notBefore="1696" notAfter="1697">
  <p>The manuscript was acquired by Árni
     Magnússon from the estate of Jens Rosenkrantz, presumably at
     auction (the auction lot number 468 is written in red chalk on the
     flyleaf), either in 1696 or 97.</p>
 </acquisition>
</history>

1.7 Additional information

Three categories of additional information are provided for by the scheme described here, grouped together within the additional element described in this section.
  • additional groups additional information, combining bibliographic information about a manuscript, or surrogate copies of it with curatorial or administrative information.
  • adminInfo (administrative information) contains information about the present custody and availability of the manuscript, and also about the record description itself.
  • surrogates contains information about any non-digital representations of the manuscript being described which may exist in the holding institution or elsewhere.
  • listBibl (citation list) contains a list of bibliographic citations of any kind.

The surrogates element should not be used to describe digital images of the manuscript since the facsimile element described in 2 Metadata about digital facsimiles is provided for this purpose.

None of the constituent elements of additional is required. If any is supplied, it may appear once only; furthermore, the order in which elements are supplied should be as specified above.

1.7.1 Administrative information

The adminInfo element is used to hold information relating to the curation and management of a manuscript. This may be supplied using note element. Alternatively, different aspects of this information may be presented grouped within one of the following specialized elements:
  • recordHist (recorded history) provides information about the source and revision status of the parent manuscript description itself.
  • availability supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, etc.
    status supplies a code identifying the current availability of the text.
  • custodialHist (custodial history) contains a description of a manuscript's custodial history, either as running prose or as a series of dated custodial events.

The status attribute of availability must take one of the following values: free, restricted, unknown.

1.7.1.1 Record History
The recordHist element may contain either a series of paragraphs or a single source element. It is used to document the primary source of information for the record containing it, in a similar way to the standard TEI sourceDesc element within a TEI Header. If the record is a new one, made without reference to anything other than the manuscript itself, then it may be omitted, or simply contain a p element, as in the following example:
<source>
 <p>Directly catalogued from the original manuscript.</p>
</source>
Frequently, however, the record will be derived from some previously existing description, which may be specified using the bibl element, as in the following example:
<recordHist>
 <source>
  <p>Information transcribed from <bibl>
    <title>The index of
         Middle English verse</title>
    <biblScope type="pages">123</biblScope>
   </bibl>.</p>
 </source>
</recordHist>
If, as is likely, a full bibliographic description of the source from which cataloguing information was taken is included within the listBibl element contained by the current additional element, or elsewhere in the current document, then it need not be repeated here. Instead, it should be referenced using the standard TEI ref element, as in the following example:
<additional>
 <adminInfo>
  <recordHist>
   <source>
    <p>Information transcribed from
    <bibl>
      <ref target="#IMEV">IMEV</ref> 123</bibl>.</p>
   </source>
  </recordHist>
 </adminInfo>
 <listBibl>
  <bibl xml:id="IMEV">
   <author>Carleton Brown</author> and <author>Rossell Hope Robbins</author>
   <title level="m">The index of Middle English verse</title>
   <pubPlace>New York</pubPlace>
   <date>1943</date>
  </bibl>
<!-- other bibliographic records relating to this manuscript here -->
 </listBibl>
</additional>

The change element within the revisionDesc element of the TEI Header should be used to document the revision history of the record. It should not be given within the recordHist element.

1.7.1.2 Availability and Custodial History
The availability element is another element also available in the TEI Header, which should be used here to supply any information concerning access to the current manuscript, such as its physical location (where this is not implicit in its identifier), any restrictions on access, information about copyright, etc.
<availability status="restricted">
 <p>Viewed by appointment only, to be arranged with curator.</p>
</availability>
<availability status="unknown">
 <p>In conservation, Jan. - Mar., 2002. On loan to the
   Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, April - July, 2002.</p>
</availability>
<availability status="restricted">
 <p>The manuscript is in poor condition, due to many of the leaves being
   brittle and fragile and the poor quality of a number of earlier repairs;
   it should therefore not be used or lent out until it has been conserved.</p>
</availability>
The custodialHist record is used to describe the custodial history of a manuscript, recording any significant events noted during the period that it has been located within its holding institution. It may contain either a series of p elements, or a series of custEvent elements, each describing a distinct incident or event, further specified by a type attribute, and carrying dating information by virtue of its membership in the att.datable class, as noted above.
  • custEvent (custodial event) describes a single event during the custodial history of a manuscript.
For ENRICH purposes, the values of this attribute must be one of the following: check, conservation, description, exhibition, loan, photography, other.
Element custEvent change
Here is an example of the use of this element:
<custodialHist>
 <custEvent type="conservation" notBefore="1961-03-01" notAfter="1963-02-28">
  <p>Conserved between March 1961 and February 1963 at Birgitte Dalls
     Konserveringsværksted.</p>
 </custEvent>
 <custEvent type="photography" notBefore="1988-05-01" notAfter="1988-05-30">
  <p>Photographed in May 1988 by AMI/FA.</p>
 </custEvent>
 <custEvent type="loan" notBefore="1989-11-13" notAfter="1989-11-13">
  <p>Dispatched to Iceland 13 November 1989.</p>
 </custEvent>
</custodialHist>

1.7.2 Surrogates

The surrogates element is used to provide information about any digital or photographic representations of the manuscript which may exist within the holding institution or elsewhere.
  • surrogates contains information about any non-digital representations of the manuscript being described which may exist in the holding institution or elsewhere.
The surrogates element should not be used to repeat information about representations of the manuscript available within published works; this should normally be documented within the listBibl element within the additional element. However, it is often also convenient to record information such as negative numbers or digital identifiers for unpublished collections of manuscript images maintained within the holding institution, as well as to provide more detailed descriptive information about the surrogate itself. Such information may be provided as prose paragraphs, within which identifying information about particular surrogates may be presented using the standard TEI bibl element, as in the following example:
<surrogates>
 <p>
  <bibl>
   <title type="gmd">microfilm (master)</title>
   <idno>G.neg. 160</idno> n.d.</bibl>
  <bibl>
   <title type="gmd">microfilm (archive)</title>
   <idno>G.pos. 186</idno> n.d.</bibl>
  <bibl>
   <title type="gmd">b/w prints</title>
   <idno>AM 795 4to</idno>
   <date when="1999-01-27">27 January 1999</date>
   <note>copy of G.pos. 186</note>
  </bibl>
  <bibl>
   <title type="gmd">b/w prints</title>
   <idno>reg.nr. 75</idno>
   <date when="1999-01-25">25 January 1999</date>
   <note>photographs of the spine, outside covers, stitching etc.</note>
  </bibl>
 </p>
</surrogates>
Note the use of the specialized form of title (general material designation) to specify the kind of surrogate being documented.

For ENRICH purposes, information about digital images of the manuscript being described should be provided within the facsimile element discussed in section 2 Metadata about digital facsimiles below rather than within the surrogates element.

1.8 Manuscript Parts

The msPart element may be used in cases where what were originally physically separate manuscripts or parts of manuscripts have been bound together and/or share the same call number.
  • msPart (manuscript part) contains information about an originally distinct manuscript or part of a manuscript, now forming part of a composite manuscript.
Since each component of such a composite manuscript will in all likelihood have its own content, physical description, history, and so on, the structure of msPart is in the main identical to that of msDesc, allowing one to retain the top level of identity (msIdentifier), but to branch out thereafter into as many parts, or even subparts, as necessary. If the parts of a composite manuscript have their own identifiers, they should be tagged using the idno element, rather than the msIdentifier element, as in the following example:
<msDesc xml:id="ex3" xml:lang="en">
 <msIdentifier>
  <settlement>Amiens</settlement>
  <repository>Bibliothèque Municipale</repository>
  <idno>MS 3</idno>
  <msName>Maurdramnus Bible</msName>
 </msIdentifier>
<!-- other elements here -->
 <msPart>
  <altIdentifier type="other">
   <idno>MS 6</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
<!-- other information specific to this part here -->
 </msPart>
 <msPart>
  <altIdentifier type="other">
   <idno>MS 7</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
<!-- other information specific to this part here -->
 </msPart>
 <msPart>
  <altIdentifier type="other">
   <idno>MS 9</idno>
  </altIdentifier>
<!-- other information specific to this part here -->
 </msPart>
<!-- other msParts here -->
</msDesc>

2 Metadata about digital facsimiles

The facsimile element is used to describe the digital images of the manuscript being made available to the ENRICH project. It contains, as a minimum, one surface element for each distinct page image, which in turn specifies one or more graphic element. These elements are used as described in the TEI Guidelines, section 11.1.

Here is a simple example:
<facsimile xml:base="http://www.handrit.org/AM/fol/">
 <surface
   xml:id="LSB-1r"
   ulx="0"
   uly="0"
   lrx="200"
   lry="300">

  <graphic mimeType="jpeg" xml:id="AM02-5000-1r" url="AM02-5000-1r.jpg"/>
  <graphic
    mimeType="jpeg"
    url="AM02-5000-1r-thumb.jpg"
    width="1in"
    decls="#thumb"/>

  <zone
    ulx="20"
    uly="20"
    lrx="70"
    lry="70">

   <desc>Illuminated initial letter M</desc>
   <graphic mimeType="jpeg" xml:id="AM02-5000-1r-det" url="AM02-5000-1r-det.jpg"/>
  </zone>
 </surface>
 <surface
   start="#LSB-1v"
   ulx="0"
   uly="0"
   lrx="200"
   lry="300">

  <graphic mimeType="jpeg" xml:id="AM02-5000-1v" url="AM02-5000-1v.jgp"/>
  <graphic
    mimeType="jpeg"
    url="AM02-5000-1v-thumb.jpg"
    decls="http://www.enrich.org/imageDescs#thumb"/>

 </surface>
</facsimile>

The xml:base attribute specifies the ‘root URL’, which will be prefixed to all URL values within the child elements of this facsimile.

This example defines only two pages. There are three images associated with the first page, which is represented by the surface element with unique identifier LSB-1r, and two with the second, which has no identifier. Each image is represented by means of a TEI graphic element.

As well as acting as a container for the various images associated with a page, the surface element defines an abstract co-ordinate system which may be used when defining additional zones of interest on the page. In this example, the location of an initial letter on the page is defined, since we have a graphic representing this detail. The zone within which the initial letter falls is in the box defined by the co-ordinates (20,20,70,70) within a grid defined by the co-ordinates (0,0,200,300). Thus, if the surface depicted actually measured 200 by 300 mm, the initial letter would occupy a 50 X 50 mm square, with its upper left corner located 20 mm from the left and 20 mm from the top edges of the surface. Note however that the numbers used to express co-ordinates are not measurements in any specific units and should not be used to determine the actual image size, since these may in any case vary greatly: in our example, the first image is a full page scan, while the second is a thumbnail.

The mimeType attribute is used to indicate the format of the graphic file itself, and may be any valid MIME type, as defined by the IANA, for example jpeg, png, bmp, tiff etc.

The decls attribute is used to indicate an external URI from which further metadata applicable to this image may be found. In this case we are assuming that there is a definition which can be used to indicate characteristics of a thumbnail image at the address indicated. Note that this must be given in full, since it would otherwise be interpreted as an address relative to the value of the xml:base attribute on the parent facsimile.

The desc element within a zone may be used to supply additional information about that zone, in this example to describe what it contains. In the TEI scheme, full documentation of a facsimile and its contents is carried in other parts of the digital document, linked to it in either or both of the following ways:
To complete the above example, we might thus expect that the msDesc for this manuscript will contain something like the following:
<msItem>
 <locus facs="#LSB-1r">ff. 1r-1v</locus>
 <title>Ludovícuss saga Bernharðssonar</title>
</msItem>
Here, the value of the facs attribute is a pointer to the surface element corresponding with the part of the manuscript in which the msItem specified begins. If a transcription of this (regrettably nonexistent) manuscript exists, then it might begin as follows:
<div facs="#LSB-1r">
 <pb n="1r"/>
 <p>Maðr hét Ludovícus, sonr Bernharðs greifa, er kallaðr var loðinbjörn.
 
<!-- rest of text for page one -->
  <pb n="1v" xml:id="LSB-1v"/>
<!-- text for second page here -->
 </p>
</div>

3 Customization Section

We include in the schema the four basic key TEI modules header, core, tei, and textstructure. We also include five specialized modules: msdescription, linking, namesdates, figures, and transcr.

All the elements and attributes defined by these modules are included in the ENRICH schema, with the following modifications. Firstly, several unwanted elements are deleted. Secondly, some optional attributes have been made compulsory, and their range of possible values are constrained. Finally, the content model for a small number of elements has been simplified to remove unwanted alternatives.

The following elements are deleted: <ab>, <alt>, <altGrp>, <analytic>, <appInfo>, <application>, <biblFull>, <biblStruct>, <binaryObject>, <broadcast>, <cRefPattern>, <cell>, <cit>, <climate>, <correction>, <distinct>, <email>, <emph>, <equipment>, <equiv>, <fsdDecl>, <headItem>, <headLabel>, <hyphenation>, <imprint>, <interpretation>, <join>, <joinGrp>, <link>, <linkGrp>, <listNym>, <measure>, <measureGrp>, <meeting>, <mentioned>, <metDecl>, <metSym>, <monogr>, <msItemStruct>, <namespace>, <normalization>, <num>, <nym>, <postBox>, <postCode>, q, <quotation>, <recording>, <recordingStmt>, <refsDecl>, <rendition>, <row>, <rs>, <said>, <samplingDecl>, <scriptStmt>, <segmentation>, <series>, <soCalled>, <sp>, <speaker>, <stage>, <state>, <stdVals>, <street>, <table>, <tagUsage>, <tagsDecl>, <teiCorpus>, <terrain>, <time>, <timeline>, <variantEncoding>, <when>.

The att.global.linking class is also deleted, since we anticipate no need for complex pointing mechanisms.

On the altIdentifier element, the type attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: former; partial; internal; system; other

On the availability element, the status attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: free; unknown; restricted.

On the biblScope element, the type attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: volume; pages.

On the custEvent element, the type attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: check; conservation; description; exhibition; loan; photography; other.

On the decoNote element, the type attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: border; diagram; initial; marginal; miniature; mixed; paratext; secondary; other; illustration; printmark; publishmark; vignette; frieze; map; unspecified.

On the dimensions element, the type attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: leaf; binding; slip; written; boxed; unknown.

On the gap element, the reason attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: damage; illegible; cancelled; irrelevant.

On all members of the att.dimensions class, the unit attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: chars; leaves; lines; mm; pages; words. The precision attribute is removed.

On the handNote element, the script attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: carolmin; textualis; cursiva; hybrida; humbook; humcursiva; kanzlei; kurrent; other.

On the handNote element, the scope attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: sole; major; minor.

On the hi element, the rend attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: hyphenated; underline; double-underline; bold; caps; italic; sup; rubric.

On the layout element, the columns attribute is compulsory, and must take a numeric value.

On the msDesc element, the xml:id attribute is compulsory, and must be a valid XML identifier.

On the msDesc element, the xml:lang attribute is compulsory, and must be a valid ISO 639 language code.

On the name element, the type attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: person; place; org; unknown.

On the objectDesc element, the form attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: codex; leaf; scroll; other.

On the person element, the sex attribute is compulsory, and must be one of 1 (male), 2 (female), 0 (inapplicable), or 9 (unknown).

On the region element, the type attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: parish; county; compass; geog; state; unknown.

On the supplied element, the reason attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: omitted; illegible; damage; unknown.

On the supportDesc element, the material attribute is compulsory, and must take one of the following values: perg; chart; mixed; unknown.

The following changes do not affect TEI conformance since either they affect only optional parts of TEI content models or they involve additional value constraints for TEI attributes:

Schema enrich: Model classes

model.addressLike

model.addressLike groups elements used to represent a postal or e-mail address.
Module tei
Used by
Members affiliation

model.biblLike

model.biblLike groups elements containing a bibliographic description.
Module tei
Used by
Members bibl msDesc

model.biblPart

model.biblPart groups elements which represent components of a bibliographic description.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.imprintPart [biblScope distributor pubPlace publisher] model.respLike [author editor funder principal respStmt sponsor] edition extent idno msIdentifier relatedItem

model.choicePart

model.choicePart groups elements (other than choice itself) which can be used within a choice alternation.
Module tei
Used by
Members abbr am corr ex expan orig reg seg sic unclear

model.common

model.common groups common chunk- and inter-level elements.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.divPart [model.lLike [l] model.pLike [p] lg] model.inter [model.biblLike [bibl msDesc] model.egLike model.labelLike [desc label] model.listLike [list listBibl listEvent listOrg listPerson listPlace] model.qLike [model.quoteLike [quote] q] ]
Note
This class defines the set of chunk- and inter-level elements; it is used in many content models, including those for textual divisions.

model.dateLike

model.dateLike groups elements containing temporal expressions.
Module tei
Used by
Members date

model.dimLike

model.dimLike groups elements which describe a measurement forming part of the physical dimensions of some object.
Module tei
Used by
Members depth height width

model.divBottom

model.divBottom groups elements appearing at the end of a text division.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.divBottomPart model.divWrapper [docAuthor]

model.divGenLike

model.divGenLike groups elements used to represent a structural division which is generated rather than explicitly present in the source.
Module tei
Used by
Members divGen

model.divLike

model.divLike groups elements used to represent un-numbered generic structural divisions.
Module tei
Used by
Members div

model.divPart

model.divPart groups paragraph-level elements appearing directly within divisions.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.lLike [l] model.pLike [p] lg
Note
Note that this element class does not include members of the model.inter class, which can appear either within or between paragraph-level items.

model.divTop

model.divTop groups elements appearing at the beginning of a text division.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.divTopPart [model.headLike [head] ] model.divWrapper [docAuthor]

model.divTopPart

model.divTopPart groups elements which can occur only at the beginning of a text division.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.headLike [head]

model.divWrapper

model.divWrapper groups elements which can appear at either top or bottom of a textual division.
Module tei
Used by
Members docAuthor

model.emphLike

model.emphLike groups phrase-level elements which are typographically distinct and to which a specific function can be attributed.
Module tei
Used by
Members foreign gloss term title

model.encodingPart

model.encodingPart groups elements which may be used inside encodingDesc and appear multiple times.
Module header
Used by
Members charDecl classDecl editorialDecl geoDecl projectDesc

model.frontPart

model.frontPart groups elements which appear at the level of divisions within front or back matter.
Module tei
Used by
Members divGen titlePage

model.gLike

model.gLike groups elements used to represent individual non-Unicode characters or glyphs.
Module tei
Used by
Members g

model.global

model.global groups elements which may appear at any point within a TEI text.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.global.edit [addSpan damageSpan delSpan gap space] model.global.meta [index] model.milestoneLike [anchor cb fw lb milestone pb] model.noteLike [note] figure

model.global.edit

model.global.edit groups globally available elements which perform a specifically editorial function.
Module tei
Used by
Members addSpan damageSpan delSpan gap space

model.global.meta

model.global.meta groups globally available elements which describe the status of other elements.
Module tei
Used by
Members index
Note
Elements in this class are typically used to hold groups of links or of abstract interpretations, or by provide indications of certainty etc. It may find be convenient to localize all metadata elements, for example to contain them within the same divison as the elements that they relate to; or to locate them all to a division of their own. They may however appear at any point in a TEI text.

model.glossLike

model.glossLike groups elements which provide an alternative name, explanation, or description for any markup construct.
Module tei
Used by
Members desc gloss

model.graphicLike

model.graphicLike groups elements containing images, formulae, and similar objects.
Module tei
Used by
Members formula graphic

model.headLike

model.headLike groups elements used to provide a title or heading at the start of a text division.
Module tei
Used by
Members head

model.headerPart

model.headerPart groups high level elements which may appear more than once in a TEI Header.
Module header
Used by
Members encodingDesc profileDesc

model.hiLike

model.hiLike groups phrase-level elements which are typographically distinct but to which no specific function can be attributed.
Module tei
Used by
Members hi

model.highlighted

model.highlighted groups phrase-level elements which are typographically distinct.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.emphLike [foreign gloss term title] model.hiLike [hi]

model.imprintPart

model.imprintPart groups the bibliographic elements which occur inside imprints.
Module tei
Used by
Members biblScope distributor pubPlace publisher

model.inter

model.inter groups elements which can appear either within or between paragraph-like elements.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.biblLike [bibl msDesc] model.egLike model.labelLike [desc label] model.listLike [list listBibl listEvent listOrg listPerson listPlace] model.qLike [model.quoteLike [quote] q]

model.lLike

model.lLike groups elements representing metrical components such as verse lines.
Module tei
Used by
Members l

model.labelLike

model.labelLike groups elements used to gloss or explain other parts of a document.
Module tei
Used by
Members desc label

model.limitedPhrase

model.limitedPhrase groups phrase-level elements excluding those elements primarily intended for transcription of existing sources.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.emphLike [foreign gloss term title] model.pPart.data [model.addressLike [affiliation] model.dateLike [date] model.measureLike [depth dim geo height width] model.nameLike [model.nameLike.agent [name orgName persName] model.offsetLike [geogFeat offset] model.persNamePart [addName forename genName nameLink roleName surname] model.placeStateLike [model.placeNamePart [bloc country district geogName placeName region settlement] ] ] ] model.pPart.editorial [abbr am choice ex expan subst] model.pPart.msdesc [catchwords dimensions handShift heraldry locus locusGrp material origDate origPlace secFol signatures stamp watermark] model.ptrLike [ptr ref]

model.listLike

model.listLike groups list-like elements.
Module tei
Used by
Members list listBibl listEvent listOrg listPerson listPlace

model.measureLike

model.measureLike groups elements which denote a number, a quantity, a measurement, or similar piece of text that conveys some numerical meaning.
Module tei
Used by
Members depth dim geo height width

model.milestoneLike

model.milestoneLike groups milestone-style elements used to represent reference systems.
Module tei
Used by
Members anchor cb fw lb milestone pb

model.msItemPart

model.msItemPart groups elements which can appear within a manuscript item description.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.msQuoteLike [colophon explicit finalRubric incipit rubric title] model.quoteLike [quote] model.respLike [author editor funder principal respStmt sponsor] bibl decoNote filiation listBibl msItem textLang

model.msQuoteLike

model.msQuoteLike groups elements which represent passages such as titles quoted from a manuscript as a part of its description.
Module tei
Used by
Members colophon explicit finalRubric incipit rubric title

model.nameLike

model.nameLike groups elements which name or refer to a person, place, or organization.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.nameLike.agent [name orgName persName] model.offsetLike [geogFeat offset] model.persNamePart [addName forename genName nameLink roleName surname] model.placeStateLike [model.placeNamePart [bloc country district geogName placeName region settlement] ]
Note
A superset of the naming elements that may appear in datelines, addresses, statements of responsibility, etc.

model.nameLike.agent

model.nameLike.agent groups elements which contain names of individuals or corporate bodies.
Module tei
Used by
Members name orgName persName
Note
This class is used in the content model of elements which reference names of people or organizations.

model.noteLike

model.noteLike groups globally-available note-like elements.
Module tei
Used by
Members note

model.offsetLike

model.offsetLike groups elements which can appear only as part of a place name.
Module tei
Used by
Members geogFeat offset

model.pLike

model.pLike groups paragraph-like elements.
Module tei
Used by
Members p

model.pLike.front

model.pLike.front groups paragraph-like elements which can occur as direct constituents of front matter.
Module tei
Used by
Members docAuthor docEdition docImprint docTitle head titlePart

model.pPart.data

model.pPart.data groups phrase-level elements containing names, dates, numbers, measures, and similar data.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.addressLike [affiliation] model.dateLike [date] model.measureLike [depth dim geo height width] model.nameLike [model.nameLike.agent [name orgName persName] model.offsetLike [geogFeat offset] model.persNamePart [addName forename genName nameLink roleName surname] model.placeStateLike [model.placeNamePart [bloc country district geogName placeName region settlement] ] ]

model.pPart.edit

model.pPart.edit groups phrase-level elements for simple editorial correction and transcription.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.pPart.editorial [abbr am choice ex expan subst] model.pPart.transcriptional [add corr damage del orig reg restore sic supplied unclear]

model.pPart.editorial

model.pPart.editorial groups phrase-level elements for simple editorial interventions that may be useful both in transcribing and in authoring.
Module tei
Used by
Members abbr am choice ex expan subst

model.pPart.msdesc

model.pPart.msdesc groups phrase-level elements used in manuscript description.
Module tei
Used by
Members catchwords dimensions handShift heraldry locus locusGrp material origDate origPlace secFol signatures stamp watermark

model.pPart.transcriptional

model.pPart.transcriptional groups phrase-level elements used for editorial transcription of pre-existing source materials.
Module tei
Used by
Members add corr damage del orig reg restore sic supplied unclear

model.persEventLike

model.persEventLike groups elements describing specific events in a person's history, for example birth, marriage, or appointment.
Module tei
Used by
Members birth death event
Note
These are not characteristics of an individual, but often cause an individual to gain such characteristics, or to enter a new state.

model.persNamePart

model.persNamePart groups elements which form part of a personal name.
Module namesdates
Used by
Members addName forename genName nameLink roleName surname

model.persStateLike

model.persStateLike groups elements describing changeable characteristics of a person which have a definite duration, for example occupation, residence, or name.
Module tei
Used by
Members affiliation education floruit occupation persName residence
Note
These characteristics of an individual are typically a consequence of their own action or that of others.

model.persTraitLike

model.persTraitLike groups elements describing generally unchanging physical or socially-constructed characteristics of a person, for example hair-colour, ethnicity, or sex.
Module tei
Used by
Members age faith langKnowledge nationality sex socecStatus trait
Note
These characteristics of an individual are typically independent of their volition or action.

model.personLike

model.personLike groups elements which provide information about people and their relationships.
Module tei
Used by
Members org person personGrp

model.personPart

model.personPart groups elements which form part of the description of a person.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.persEventLike [birth death event] model.persStateLike [affiliation education floruit occupation persName residence] model.persTraitLike [age faith langKnowledge nationality sex socecStatus trait] bibl

model.phrase

model.phrase groups elements which can occur at the level of individual words or phrases.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.graphicLike [formula graphic] model.highlighted [model.emphLike [foreign gloss term title] model.hiLike [hi] ] model.pPart.data [model.addressLike [affiliation] model.dateLike [date] model.measureLike [depth dim geo height width] model.nameLike [model.nameLike.agent [name orgName persName] model.offsetLike [geogFeat offset] model.persNamePart [addName forename genName nameLink roleName surname] model.placeStateLike [model.placeNamePart [bloc country district geogName placeName region settlement] ] ] ] model.pPart.edit [model.pPart.editorial [abbr am choice ex expan subst] model.pPart.transcriptional [add corr damage del orig reg restore sic supplied unclear] ] model.pPart.msdesc [catchwords dimensions handShift heraldry locus locusGrp material origDate origPlace secFol signatures stamp watermark] model.ptrLike [ptr ref] model.segLike [seg]
Note
This class of elements can occur only within larger elements of the class inter or chunk. In prose, this means these elements can occur within paragraphs, list items, lines of verse, etc.

model.physDescPart

model.physDescPart groups specialised elements forming part of the physical description of a manuscript or similar written source.
Module tei
Used by
Members accMat additions bindingDesc decoDesc handDesc musicNotation objectDesc sealDesc typeDesc

model.placeEventLike

model.placeEventLike groups elements which describe events at or affecting a place.
Module tei
Used by
Members event

model.placeLike

model.placeLike groups elements used to provide information about places and their relationships.
Module tei
Used by
Members place

model.placeNamePart

model.placeNamePart groups elements which form part of a place name.
Module tei
Used by
Members bloc country district geogName placeName region settlement

model.placeStateLike

model.placeStateLike groups elements which describe changing states of a place.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.placeNamePart [bloc country district geogName placeName region settlement]

model.placeTraitLike

model.placeTraitLike groups elements which describe unchanging traits of a place.
Module tei
Used by
Members location population trait

model.profileDescPart

model.profileDescPart groups elements which may be used inside profileDesc and appear multiple times.
Module header
Used by
Members handNotes langUsage textClass

model.ptrLike

model.ptrLike groups elements used for purposes of location and reference.
Module tei
Used by
Members ptr ref

model.publicationStmtPart

model.publicationStmtPart groups elements which may appear within the publicationStmt element of the TEI Header.
Module tei
Used by
Members authority availability date distributor idno pubPlace publisher

model.qLike

model.qLike groups elements related to highlighting which can appear either within or between chunk-level elements.
Module tei
Used by
Members model.quoteLike [quote] q

model.quoteLike

model.quoteLike groups elements used to directly contain quotations.
Module tei
Used by
Members quote

model.resourceLike

model.resourceLike groups non-textual elements which may appear together with a header and a text to constitute a TEI document.
Module tei
Used by
TEI
Members facsimile

model.respLike

model.respLike groups elements which are used to indicate intellectual or other significant responsibility, for example within a bibliographic element.
Module tei
Used by
Members author editor funder principal respStmt sponsor

model.segLike

model.segLike groups elements used for arbitrary segmentation.
Module tei
Used by
Members seg
Note
The principles on which segmentation is carried out, and any special codes or attribute values used, should be defined explicitly in the <segmentation> element of the encodingDesc within the associated TEI header.

model.titlepagePart

model.titlepagePart groups elements which can occur as direct constituents of a title page, such as docTitle, docAuthor, docImprint, or <epigraph>.
Module tei
Used by
Members docAuthor docEdition docImprint docTitle graphic titlePart

Schema enrich: Attribute classes

att.ascribed

att.ascribed provides attributes for elements representing speech or action that can be ascribed to a specific individual.
Module tei
Members change q
Attributes In addition to global attributes
who indicates the person, or group of people, to whom the element content is ascribed.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Values For transcribed speech, this will typically identify a participant or participant group; in other contexts, it will point to any identified person element.

att.canonical

att.canonical provides attributes which can be used to associate a representation such as a name or title with canonical information about the object being named or referenced.
Module tei
Members att.naming [att.personal [addName forename genName orgName persName roleName surname] affiliation birth bloc collection country death district education event geogFeat geogName institution name nationality occupation origPlace placeName population pubPlace region relation repository residence settlement socecStatus trait] author docAuthor docTitle resp term title
Attributes In addition to global attributes
key provides an externally-defined means of identifying the entity (or entities) being named, using a coded value of some kind.
Status Optional
Datatype string
Values any string of Unicode characters
Note
The value may be a unique identifier from a database, or any other externally-defined string identifying the referent.
ref (reference) provides an explicit means of locating a full definition for the entity being named by means of one or more URIs.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Note
The value must point directly to one or more XML elements by means of one or more URIs, separated by whitespace. If more than one is supplied, the implication is that the name identifies several distinct entities.

att.coordinated

att.coordinated elements which can be positioned within a two dimensional coordinate system.
Module transcr
Members surface zone
Attributes In addition to global attributes
ulx gives the x coordinate value for the upper left corner of a rectangular space.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal
uly gives the y coordinate value for the upper left corner of a rectangular space.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal
lrx gives the x coordinate value for the lower right corner of a rectangular space.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal
lry gives the y coordinate value for the lower right corner of a rectangular space.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal

att.damaged

att.damaged provides attributes describing the nature of any physical damage affecting a reading.
Module tei
Members damage damageSpan
Attributes att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max))
hand In the case of damage (deliberate defacement, inking out, etc.) assignable to a distinct hand, signifies the hand responsible for the damage.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:anyURI
Values must be one of the hand identifiers declared in the document header (see section ??).
agent categorizes the cause of the damage, if it can be identified.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Sample values include:
rubbing
damage results from rubbing of the leaf edges
mildew
damage results from mildew on the leaf surface
smoke
damage results from smoke
degree Signifies the degree of damage according to a convenient scale. The damage tag with the degree attribute should only be used where the text may be read with some confidence; text supplied from other sources should be tagged as supplied.
Status Optional
Datatype
Values an alphanumeric categorization of the degree of damage, as 0.4.
Note
The damage tag with the degree attribute should only be used where the text may be read with confidence despite the damage. It is appropriate where it is desired to record the fact of damage, though this has not affected the readability of the text (as may be the case with weathered inscriptional materials). Where the damage has rendered the text more or less illegible either the unclear tag (for partial illegibility) or the gap tag (for complete illegibility, with no text supplied) should be used, with the information concerning the damage given in the attribute values of these tags. See section ?? for discussion of the use of these tags in particular circumstances.
group assigns an arbitrary number to each stretch of damage regarded as forming part of the same physical phenomenon.
Status Mandatory when applicable
Datatype xsd:nonNegativeInteger

att.datable

att.datable provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain dates, times, or datable events.
Module tei
Members acquisition affiliation age binding birth bloc country custEvent date death district education event faith floruit geogFeat langKnowledge langKnown location nationality occupation orgName origDate origPlace origin persName placeName population provenance region relation residence seal settlement sex socecStatus stamp trait
Attributes att.datable.w3c (@period, @when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)
Note
This ‘superclass’ provides attributes that can be used to provide normalized values of temporal information. By default, the attributes from the att.datable.w3c class are provided. If the module for names & dates is loaded, this class also provides attributes from the att.datable.iso class. In general, the possible values of attributes restricted to the W3C datatypes form a subset of those values available via the ISO 8601 standard. However, the greater expressiveness of the ISO datatypes may not be needed, and there exists much greater software support for the W3C datatypes.

att.datable.w3c

att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the W3C datatypes.
Module tei
Members att.datable [acquisition affiliation age binding birth bloc country custEvent date death district education event faith floruit geogFeat langKnowledge langKnown location nationality occupation orgName origDate origPlace origin persName placeName population provenance region relation residence seal settlement sex socecStatus stamp trait]
Attributes In addition to global attributes
period supplies a pointer to some location defining a named period of time within which the datable item is understood to have occurred.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:anyURI
when supplies the value of the date or time in a standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:date | xsd:gYear | xsd:gMonth | xsd:gDay | xsd:gYearMonth | xsd:gMonthDay | xsd:time | xsd:dateTime
Values A normalized form of temporal expression conforming to the W3C XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition.

Examples of W3C date, time, and date & time formats.

<date when="1945-10-24">24 Oct 45</date>
<date when="1996-09-24T07:25:00Z">September 24th, 1996 at 3:25 in the morning</date>
<time when="1999-01-04T20:42:00-05:00">Jan 4 1999 at 8 pm</time>
<time when="14:12:38">fourteen twelve and 38 seconds</time>
<date when="1962-10">October of 1962</date>
<date when="--06-12">June 12th</date>
<date when="---01">the first of the month</date>
<date when="--08">August</date>
<date when="2006">MMVI</date>
<date when="0056">56 AD</date>
<date when="-0056">56 BC</date>
This list begins in
the year 1632, more precisely on Trinity Sunday, i.e. the Sunday after
Pentecost, in that year the <date calendar="Julian" when="1632-06-06">27th of May (old style)</date>.
<opener>
 <dateline>
  <placeName>Dorchester, Village,</placeName>
  <date when="1828-03-02">March 2d. 1828.</date>
 </dateline>
 <salute>To
   Mrs. Cornell,</salute> Sunday <time when="12:00:00">noon.</time>
</opener>
Note
The value of the when attribute should be the normalized representation of the date, time, or combined date & time intended, in any of the standard formats specified by XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition, using the Gregorian calendar.
The most commonly-encountered format for the date part of the when attribute is yyyy-mm-dd, but yyyy, --mm, ---dd, yyyy-mm, or --mm-dd may also be used. For the time part, the form hh:mm:ss is used.
Note that this format does not currently permit use of the value 0000 to represent the year 1 BCE; instead the value -0001 should be used.
notBefore specifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:date | xsd:gYear | xsd:gMonth | xsd:gDay | xsd:gYearMonth | xsd:gMonthDay | xsd:time | xsd:dateTime
Values A normalized form of temporal expression conforming to the W3C XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition.
notAfter specifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:date | xsd:gYear | xsd:gMonth | xsd:gDay | xsd:gYearMonth | xsd:gMonthDay | xsd:time | xsd:dateTime
Values A normalized form of temporal expression conforming to the W3C XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition.
from indicates the starting point of the period in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:date | xsd:gYear | xsd:gMonth | xsd:gDay | xsd:gYearMonth | xsd:gMonthDay | xsd:time | xsd:dateTime
Values A normalized form of temporal expression conforming to the W3C XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition.
to indicates the ending point of the period in standard form, e.g. yyyy-mm-dd.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:date | xsd:gYear | xsd:gMonth | xsd:gDay | xsd:gYearMonth | xsd:gMonthDay | xsd:time | xsd:dateTime
Values A normalized form of temporal expression conforming to the W3C XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition.

att.declarable

att.declarable provides attributes for those elements in the TEI Header which may be independently selected by means of the special purpose decls attribute.
Module tei
Members availability bibl editorialDecl geoDecl langUsage listBibl listEvent listOrg listPerson listPlace projectDesc sourceDesc textClass
Attributes In addition to global attributes
default indicates whether or not this element is selected by default when its parent is selected.
Status Mandatory when applicable
Datatype xsd:boolean
Legal values are:
true
This element is selected if its parent is selected
false
This element can only be selected explicitly, unless it is the only one of its kind, in which case it is selected if its parent is selected. [Default]
Note
The rules governing the association of declarable elements with individual parts of a TEI text are fully defined in chapter ??. Only one element of a particular type may have a default attribute with a value of true.

att.declaring

att.declaring provides attributes for elements which may be independently associated with a particular declarable element within the header, thus overriding the inherited default for that element.
Module tei
Members back body div facsimile front gloss graphic group lg p ptr ref surface term text
Attributes In addition to global attributes
decls identifies one or more declarable elements within the header, which are understood to apply to the element bearing this attribute and its content.
Status Mandatory when applicable
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Values must identify a set of declarable elements of different types.
Note
The rules governing the association of declarable elements with individual parts of a TEI text are fully defined in chapter ??.

att.dimensions

att.dimensions provides attributes for describing the size of physical objects.
Module tei
Members att.damaged [damage damageSpan] att.editLike [att.transcriptional [add addSpan del delSpan restore subst] affiliation age am birth corr date death education event ex expan faith floruit gap langKnowledge langKnown location nationality occupation org orgName origDate origPlace origin persName person place placeName population reg relation residence sex socecStatus supplied trait unclear] depth dim dimensions height space width
Attributes att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max)
unit names the unit used for the measurement
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Legal values are:
cm
mm
[Default]
in
lines
chars
quantity specifies the length in the units specified
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal
extent indicates the size of the object concerned using a project-specific vocabulary combining quantity and units in a single string of words.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" } separated by whitespace
Values any measurement phrase, e.g. 25 letters, 2 × 3 inches.
<gap extent="5 words"/>
<height extent="2 ft 8 in"/>
scope where the measurement summarizes more than one observation, specifies the applicability of this measurement.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Sample values include:
all
measurement applies to all instances.
most
measurement applies to most of the instances inspected.
range
measurement applies to only the specified range of instances.

att.divLike

att.divLike provides attributes common to all elements which behave in the same way as divisions.
Module tei
Members div lg
Attributes In addition to global attributes
org (organization) specifies how the content of the division is organized.
Status Optional
Legal values are:
composite
composite content: i.e. no claim is made about the sequence in which the immediate contents of this division are to be processed, or their inter-relationships.
uniform
uniform content: i.e. the immediate contents of this element are regarded as forming a logical unit, to be processed in sequence. [Default]
sample indicates whether this division is a sample of the original source and if so, from which part.
Status Optional
Legal values are:
initial
division lacks material present at end in source.
medial
division lacks material at start and end.
final
division lacks material at start.
unknown
position of sampled material within original unknown.
complete
division is not a sample. [Default]
part specifies whether or not the division is fragmented by some other structural element, for example a speech which is divided between two or more verse stanzas.
Status Mandatory when applicable
Legal values are:
Y
(yes) the division is incomplete in some respect
N
(no) either the division is complete, or no claim is made as to its completeness. [Default]
I
(initial) the initial part of an incomplete division
M
(medial) a medial part of an incomplete division
F
(final) the final part of an incomplete division
Note
The values I, M, or F should be used only where it is clear how the division is to be reconstituted.

att.editLike

att.editLike provides attributes describing the nature of a encoded scholarly intervention or interpretation of any kind.
Module tei
Members att.transcriptional [add addSpan del delSpan restore subst] affiliation age am birth corr date death education event ex expan faith floruit gap langKnowledge langKnown location nationality occupation org orgName origDate origPlace origin persName person place placeName population reg relation residence sex socecStatus supplied trait unclear
Attributes att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max))
cert (certainty) signifies the degree of certainty associated with the intervention or interpretation.
Status Optional
Datatype "high" | "medium" | "low" | "unknown"
resp (responsible party) indicates the agency responsible for the intervention or interpretation, for example an editor or transcriber.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Values A pointer to an element in the document header that is associated with a person asserted as responsible for some aspect of the text's creation, transcription, editing, or encoding.
evidence indicates the nature of the evidence supporting the reliability or accuracy of the intervention or interpretation.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Suggested values include:
internal
there is internal evidence to support the intervention.
external
there is external evidence to support the intervention.
conjecture
the intervention or interpretation has been made by the editor, cataloguer, or scholar on the basis of their expertise.
source contains a list of one or more pointers indicating the sources which support the given reading.
Status Mandatory when applicable
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Values A space-delimited series of sigla; each sigil should correspond to a witness or witness group and occur as the value of the xml:id attribute on a <witness> or msDesc element elsewhere in the document.
Note
The members of this attribute class are typically used to represent any kind of editorial intervention in a text, for example a correction or interpretation, or to date or localize manuscripts etc.

att.global

att.global provides attributes common to all elements in the TEI encoding scheme.
Module tei
Members
Attributes att.global.facs (@facs)
xml:id (identifier) provides a unique identifier for the element bearing the attribute.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:ID
Values any valid XML identifier.
Note
The xml:id attribute may be used to specify a canonical reference for an element; see section ??.
n (number) gives a number (or other label) for an element, which is not necessarily unique within the document.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" } separated by whitespace
Values any string of characters; often, but not necessarily, numeric.
Note
The n attribute may be used to specify the numbering of chapters, sections, list items, etc.; it may also be used in the specification of a standard reference system for the text.
xml:lang (language) indicates the language of the element content using a ‘tag’ generated according to BCP 47
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:language
Values The value must conform to BCP 47. If the value is a private use code (i.e., starts with x- or contains -x-) it should, and if not it may, match the value of an ident attribute of a language element supplied in the TEI Header of the current document.
Note
If no value is specified for xml:lang, the xml:lang value for the immediately enclosing element is inherited; for this reason, a value should always be specified on the outermost element (TEI).
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" } separated by whitespace
Values any string of characters; if the typographic rendition of a text is to be systematically recorded, a systematic set of values for the rend attribute should be defined.
<head rend="align(center) case(allcaps)">
 <lb/>To The <lb/>Duchesse <lb/>of <lb/>Newcastle,
<lb/>On Her <lb/>
 <hi rend="case(mixed)">New Blazing-World</hi>.
</head>
Note
These Guidelines make no binding recommendations for the values of the rend attribute; the characteristics of visual presentation vary too much from text to text and the decision to record or ignore individual characteristics varies too much from project to project. Some potentially useful conventions are noted from time to time at appropriate points in the Guidelines.
xml:base provides a base URI reference with which applications can resolve relative URI references into absolute URI references.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:anyURI
Values any syntactically valid URI reference.
<div type="bibl">
 <head>Bibliography</head>
 <listBibl
   xml:base="http://www.lib.ucdavis.edu/BWRP/Works/">

  <bibl n="1">
   <author>
    <name>Landon, Letitia Elizabeth</name>
   </author>
   <ref target="LandLVowOf.sgm">
    <title>The Vow of the Peacock</title>
   </ref>
  </bibl>
  <bibl n="2">
   <author>
    <name>Compton, Margaret Clephane</name>
   </author>
   <ref target="NortMIrene.sgm">
    <title>Irene, a Poem in Six Cantos</title>
   </ref>
  </bibl>
  <bibl n="3">
   <author>
    <name>Taylor, Jane</name>
   </author>
   <ref target="TaylJEssay.sgm">
    <title>Essays in Rhyme on Morals and Manners</title>
   </ref>
  </bibl>
 </listBibl>
</div>

att.global.facs

att.global.facs groups elements corresponding with all or part of an image, because they contain an alternative representation of it, typically but not necessarily a transcription of it.
Module transcr
Members att.global
Attributes In addition to global attributes
facs (facsimile) points to all or part of an image which corresponds with the content of the element.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Values one or more URIs, separated by whitespace.

att.handFeatures

att.handFeatures provides attributes describing aspects of the hand in which a manuscript is written.
Module tei
Members handNote handShift typeNote
Attributes In addition to global attributes
scribe gives a standard name or other identifier for the scribe believed to be responsible for this hand.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Values Un nom quelconque.
script characterizes the particular script or writing style used by this hand, for example secretary, copperplate, Chancery, Italian, etc.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:Name separated by whitespace
medium describes the tint or type of ink, e.g. brown, or other writing medium, e.g. pencil
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
scope specifies how widely this hand is used in the manuscript.
Status Optional
Legal values are:
sole
only this hand is used throughout the manuscript
major
this hand is used through most of the manuscript
minor
this hand is used occasionally in the manuscript

att.internetMedia

att.internetMedia provides attributes for specifying the type of a computer resource using a standard taxonomy.
Module tei
Members graphic
Attributes In addition to global attributes
mimeType (MIME media type) specifies the applicable multimedia internet mail extension (MIME) media type
Status Mandatory when applicable
Datatype token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" }
Values The value should be a valid MIME media type
Note
This attribute class provides attributes for describing a computer resource, typically available over the internet, according to standard taxonomies. At present only a single taxonomy is supported, the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions Media Type system. This system of typology of media types is defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force in RFC 2046. The list of types is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

att.msExcerpt

att.msExcerpt (manuscript excerpt) provides attributes used to describe excerpts from a manuscript placed in a description thereof.
Module msdescription
Members explicit incipit msContents msItem quote
Attributes In addition to global attributes
defective indicates whether the passage being quoted is defective, i.e. incomplete through loss or damage.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:boolean | "unknown" | "inapplicable"
Note
In the case of an incipit, indicates whether the incipit as given is defective, i.e. the first words of the text as preserved, as opposed to the first words of the work itself. In the case of an explicit, indicates whether the explicit as given is defective, i.e. the final words of the text as preserved, as opposed to what the closing words would have been had the text of the work been whole.

att.naming

att.naming provides attributes common to elements which refer to named persons, places, organizations etc.
Module tei
Members att.personal [addName forename genName orgName persName roleName surname] affiliation birth bloc collection country death district education event geogFeat geogName institution name nationality occupation origPlace placeName population pubPlace region relation repository residence settlement socecStatus trait
Attributes att.canonical (@key, @ref)
nymRef (reference to the canonical name) provides a means of locating the canonical form (nym) of the names associated with the object named by the element bearing it.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Values any valid URI
Note
The value must point directly to one or more XML elements by means of one or more URIs, separated by whitespace. If more than one is supplied, the implication is that the name is associated with several distinct canonical names.

att.personal

att.personal (attributes for components of personal names) common attributes for those elements which form part of a personal name.
Module tei
Members addName forename genName orgName persName roleName surname
Attributes att.naming (@nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
full indicates whether the name component is given in full, as an abbreviation or simply as an initial.
Status Optional
Legal values are:
yes
the name component is spelled out in full. [Default]
abb
(abbreviated) the name component is given in an abbreviated form.
init
(initial letter) the name component is indicated only by one initial.
sort specifies the sort order of the name component in relation to others within the personal name.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:nonNegativeInteger
Values A positive number indicating the sort order.

att.placement

att.placement provides attributes for describing where on the source page or object a textual element appears.
Module tei
Members add addSpan figure fw note
Attributes In addition to global attributes
place
Status Recommended
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:Name separated by whitespace
Suggested values include:
below
below the line
bottom
at the foot of the page
margin
in the margin (left, right, or both)
top
at the top of the page
opposite
on the opposite, i.e. facing, page
overleaf
on the other side of the leaf
above
above the line
end
at the end of e.g. chapter or volume.
inline
within the body of the text.
inspace
in a predefined space, for example left by an earlier scribe.
<add place="margin">[An addition written in the margin]</add>
<add place="bottom opposite">[An addition written at the
foot of the current page and also on the facing page]</add>
<note place="bottom">Ibid, p.7</note>

att.pointing

att.pointing defines a set of attributes used by all elements which point to other elements by means of one or more URI references.
Module linking
Members ptr ref
Attributes In addition to global attributes
type categorizes the pointer in some respect, using any convenient set of categories.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Values The type should indicate the intended function of the pointer, or the rhetorical relationship between its source and target.
evaluate specifies the intended meaning when the target of a pointer is itself a pointer.
Status Optional
Legal values are:
all
if the element pointed to is itself a pointer, then the target of that pointer will be taken, and so on, until an element is found which is not a pointer.
one
if the element pointed to is itself a pointer, then its target (whether a pointer or not) is taken as the target of this pointer.
none
no further evaluation of targets is carried out beyond that needed to find the element specified in the pointer's target.
Note
If no value is given, the application program is responsible for deciding (possibly on the basis of user input) how far to trace a chain of pointers.

att.ranging

att.ranging provides attributes for describing numerical ranges.
Module tei
Members att.dimensions [att.damaged [damage damageSpan] att.editLike [att.transcriptional [add addSpan del delSpan restore subst] affiliation age am birth corr date death education event ex expan faith floruit gap langKnowledge langKnown location nationality occupation org orgName origDate origPlace origin persName person place placeName population reg relation residence sex socecStatus supplied trait unclear] depth dim dimensions height space width]
Attributes In addition to global attributes
atLeast gives a minimum estimated value for the measurement.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal
atMost gives a maximum estimated value for the measurement.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal
min where the measurement summarizes more than one observation, supplies the minimum value observed.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal
max where the measurement summarizes more than one observation, supplies the maximum value observed.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:double | token { pattern = "(\-?[\d]+/\-?[\d]+)" } | xsd:decimal

att.segLike

att.segLike provides attributes for elements used for arbitrary segmentation.
Module tei
Members seg
Attributes In addition to global attributes
function characterizes the function of the segment.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Values For a <cl>, may take values such as coordinate, subject, adverbial etc. For a <phr>, such values as subject, predicate etc. may be more appropriate.
part specifies whether or not the segment is fragmented by some other structural element, for example a clause which is divided between two or more sentences.
Status Mandatory when applicable
Legal values are:
Y
(yes) the segment is incomplete in some respect
N
(no) either the segment is complete, or no claim is made as to its completeness [Default]
I
(initial) the initial part of an incomplete segment
M
(medial) a medial part of an incomplete segment
F
(final) the final part of an incomplete segment
Note
The values I, M, or F should be used only where it is clear how the division is to be reconstituted.

att.sourced

att.sourced provides attributes identifying the source edition from which some encoded feature derives.
Module tei
Members cb lb milestone pb refState
Attributes In addition to global attributes
ed (edition) supplies an arbitrary identifier for the source edition in which the associated feature (for example, a page, column, or line break) occurs at this point in the text.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Values Any string of characters; usually a siglum conventionally used for the edition.
Example
<l>Of Mans First Disobedience,<lb ed="1674"/> and<lb ed="1667"/> the Fruit</l>
<l>Of that Forbidden Tree, whose<lb ed="1667 1674"/> mortal tast</l>
<l>Brought Death into the World,<lb ed="1667"/> and all<lb ed="1674"/> our woe,</l>

att.spanning

att.spanning provides attributes for elements which delimit a span of text by pointing mechanisms rather than by enclosing it.
Module tei
Members addSpan damageSpan delSpan index
Attributes In addition to global attributes
spanTo indicates the end of a span initiated by the element bearing this attribute.
Status Mandatory when applicable
Datatype xsd:anyURI
Values points to an element following this one in the current document.
Note
The span is defined as running in document order from the start of the content of the pointing element (if any) to the end of the content of the element pointed to by the spanTo attribute (if any). If no value is supplied for the attribute, the assumption is that the span is coextensive with the pointing element.

att.transcriptional

att.transcriptional provides attributes specific to elements encoding authorial or scribal intervention in a text when transcribing manuscript or similar sources.
Module tei
Members add addSpan del delSpan restore subst
Attributes att.editLike (@cert, @resp, @evidence, @source) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max)) )
hand signifies the hand of the agent which made the intervention.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:anyURI
Values must refer to a handNote element, typically declared in the document header (see section ??).
status indicates the effect of the intervention, for example in the case of a deletion, strikeouts which include too much or too little text, or in the case of an addition, an insertion which duplicates some of the text already present.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Sample values include:
duplicate
all of the text indicated as an addition duplicates some text that is in the original, whether the duplication is word-for-word or less exact.
duplicate-partial
part of the text indicated as an addition duplicates some text that is in the original
excessStart
some text at the beginning of the deletion is marked as deleted even though it clearly should not be deleted.
excessEnd
some text at the end of the deletion is marked as deleted even though it clearly should not be deleted.
shortStart
some text at the beginning of the deletion is not marked as deleted even though it clearly should be.
shortEnd
some text at the end of the deletion is not marked as deleted even though it clearly should be.
partial
some text in the deletion is not marked as deleted even though it clearly should be.
unremarkable
the deletion is not faulty. [Default]
Note
Status information on each deletion is needed rather rarely except in critical editions from authorial manuscripts; status information on additions is even less common.
Marking a deletion or addition as faulty is inescapably an interpretive act; the usual test applied in practice is the linguistic acceptability of the text with and without the letters or words in question.
seq (sequence) assigns a sequence number related to the order in which the encoded features carrying this attribute are believed to have occurred.
Status Mandatory when applicable
Datatype xsd:nonNegativeInteger

att.translatable

att.translatable provides attributes used to indicate the status of a translatable portion of an ODD document.
Module tei
Members desc gloss
Attributes In addition to global attributes
version specifies the version name or number of the source from which the translated version was derived
Status Optional
Datatype token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" }
Note
The version may be a number, a letter, or a date

att.typed

att.typed provides attributes which can be used to classify or subclassify elements in any way.
Module tei
Members accMat add addName addSpan altIdentifier anchor bibl bloc cb charProp corr country custEvent damage damageSpan date decoNote del delSpan dim district div event explicit filiation finalRubric forename g genName geogFeat gloss head incipit lb lg listBibl listEvent listOrg listPerson listPlace location mapping milestone msName name nameLink offset org orgName origDate pb persName place placeName population quote reg region relatedItem relationGrp restore roleName rubric seal seg settlement stamp surname term text trait
Attributes In addition to global attributes
type characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
subtype provides a sub-categorization of the element, if needed
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Note
The subtype attribute may be used to provide any sub-classification for the element, additional to that provided by its type attribute.
Note
The typology used may be formally defined using the <classification> element of the encodingDesc within the associated TEI header, or as a list within one of the components of the encodingDesc element, or informally as descriptive prose within the encodingDesc element.

Schema enrich: Macros

macro.limitedContent

macro.limitedContent (paragraph content) defines the content of prose elements that are not used for transcription of extant materials.
Module tei
Used by
Declaration
macro.limitedContent = ( text | model.limitedPhrase | model.inter )*

macro.paraContent

macro.paraContent (paragraph content) defines the content of paragraphs and similar elements.
Module tei
Used by
Declaration
macro.paraContent =
   ( text | model.gLike | model.phrase | model.inter | model.global )*

macro.phraseSeq

macro.phraseSeq (phrase sequence) defines a sequence of character data and phrase-level elements.
Module tei
Used by
Declaration
macro.phraseSeq = ( text | model.gLike | model.phrase | model.global )*

macro.phraseSeq.limited

macro.phraseSeq.limited (limited phrase sequence) defines a sequence of character data and those phrase-level elements that are not typically used for transcribing extant documents.
Module tei
Used by
Declaration
macro.phraseSeq.limited = ( text | model.limitedPhrase | model.global )*

macro.specialPara

macro.specialPara ('special' paragraph content) defines the content model of elements such as notes or list items, which either contain a series of component-level elements or else have the same structure as a paragraph, containing a series of phrase-level and inter-level elements.
Module tei
Used by
Declaration
macro.specialPara =
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.phrasemodel.intermodel.divPartmodel.global
   )*

macro.xtext

macro.xtext (extended text) defines a sequence of character data and gaiji elements.
Module tei
Used by
Declaration
macro.xtext = ( text | model.gLike )*

Schema enrich: Elements

<TEI>

<TEI> (TEI document) contains a single TEI-conformant document, comprising a TEI header and a text, either in isolation or as part of a <teiCorpus> element. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/DS.html#DS http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CC.html#CCDEF
Module textstructure
In addition to global attributes In addition to global attributes
version The version of the TEI scheme
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:decimal
Values A number identifying the version of the TEI guidelines
Used by
May contain
header: teiHeader
textstructure: text
transcr: facsimile
Declaration
                        element 
                        TEI
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute version { xsd:decimal }?,
   ( teiHeader, ( ( model.resourceLike+, text? ) | text ) )
}

<s:ns prefix="tei" uri="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0"/>

<s:ns prefix="rng" uri="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"/>
Example
<TEI>
 <teiHeader>
  <fileDesc>
   <titleStmt>
    <title>The shortest TEI Document Imaginable</title>
   </titleStmt>
   <publicationStmt>
    <p>First published as part of TEI P2.</p>
   </publicationStmt>
   <sourceDesc>
    <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>
   </sourceDesc>
  </fileDesc>
 </teiHeader>
 <text>
  <body>
   <p>This is about the shortest TEI document imaginable.</p>
  </body>
 </text>
</TEI>
Note
This element is required.

<abbr>

<abbr> (abbreviation) contains an abbreviation of any sort. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CO.html#CONAAB
Module core
In addition to global attributes In addition to global attributes
type allows the encoder to classify the abbreviation according to some convenient typology.
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:Name
Sample values include:
suspension
the abbreviation provides the first letter(s) of the word or phrase, omitting the remainder.
contraction
the abbreviation omits some letter(s) in the middle.
brevigraph
the abbreviation comprises a special symbol or mark.
superscription
the abbreviation includes writing above the line.
acronym
the abbreviation comprises the initial letters of the words of a phrase.
title
the abbreviation is for a title of address (Dr, Ms, Mr, …)
organization
the abbreviation is for the name of an organization.
geographic
the abbreviation is for a geographic name.
Note
The type attribute is provided for the sake of those who wish to classify abbreviations at their point of occurrence; this may be useful in some circumstances, though usually the same abbreviation will have the same type in all occurrences. As the sample values make clear, abbreviations may be classified by the method used to construct them, the method of writing them, or the referent of the term abbreviated; the typology used is up to the encoder and should be carefully planned to meet the needs of the expected use. For a typology of Middle English abbreviations, see ??
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        abbr
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute type { xsd:Name }?,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<abbr>SPQR</abbr>
Example
<choice>
 <abbr>SPQR</abbr>
 <expan>senatus populusque romanorum</expan>
</choice>
Note
The abbr tag is not required; if appropriate, the encoder may transcribe abbreviations in the source text silently, without tagging them. If abbreviations are not transcribed directly but expanded silently, then the TEI header should so indicate.

<accMat>

<accMat> (accompanying material) contains details of any significant additional material which may be closely associated with the manuscript being described, such as non-contemporaneous documents or fragments bound in with the manuscript at some earlier historical period. 1.5.3.3 Accompanying Material
Module msdescription
In addition to global attributes att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        accMat
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}
Example
<accMat>A copy of a tax form from 1947 is included in the envelope
with the letter. It is not catalogued separately.</accMat>

<acquisition>

<acquisition> contains any descriptive or other information concerning the process by which a manuscript or manuscript part entered the holding institution. 1.6 History
Module msdescription
In addition to global attributes att.datable (att.datable.w3c (@period, @when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to))
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        acquisition
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}
Example
<acquisition>Left to the <name type="place">Bodleian</name> by
<name type="person">Richard Rawlinson</name> in 1755.
</acquisition>

<add>

<add> (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the text by an author, scribe, annotator, or corrector. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CO.html#COEDADD
Module core
In addition to global attributes att.transcriptional (@hand, @status, @seq) (att.editLike (@cert, @resp, @evidence, @source) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max)) ) ) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        add
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.transcriptional.attribute.hand,
   att.transcriptional.attribute.status,
   att.transcriptional.attribute.seq,
   att.editLike.attribute.cert,
   att.editLike.attribute.resp,
   att.editLike.attribute.evidence,
   att.editLike.attribute.source,
   att.dimensions.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}
Example
The story I am going to relate is true as to
its main facts, and as to the consequences <add place="above">of
these facts</add> from which this tale takes its title.
Note
The add element should not be used for additions made by editors or encoders. In these cases, either the corr or supplied element should be used.

<addName>

<addName> (additional name) contains an additional name component, such as a nickname, epithet, or alias, or any other descriptive phrase used within a personal name. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/ND.html#NDPER
Module namesdates
In addition to global attributes att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) ) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        addName
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.personal.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<persName>
 <forename>Frederick</forename>
 <addName type="epithet">the Great</addName>
 <roleName>Emperor of Prussia</roleName>
</persName>

<addSpan>

<addSpan> (added span of text) marks the beginning of a longer sequence of text added by an author, scribe, annotator or corrector (see also add). http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/PH.html#PHAD
Module transcr
In addition to global attributes att.transcriptional (@hand, @status, @seq) (att.editLike (@cert, @resp, @evidence, @source) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max)) ) ) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.spanning (@spanTo)
Used by
May contain Empty element
Declaration
                        element 
                        addSpan
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.transcriptional.attribute.hand,
   att.transcriptional.attribute.status,
   att.transcriptional.attribute.seq,
   att.editLike.attribute.cert,
   att.editLike.attribute.resp,
   att.editLike.attribute.evidence,
   att.editLike.attribute.source,
   att.dimensions.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.spanning.attributes,
   empty
}

<s:assert test="@spanTo">The spanTo= attribute of <s:name/>
is required.</s:assert>
Example
<handNote xml:id="HEOL" scribe="HelgiÓlafsson"/>
<!-- ... -->
<body>
 <div>
<!-- text here -->
 </div>
 <addSpan n="added gathering" hand="#HEOL" spanTo="#P025"/>
 <div>
<!-- text of first added poem here -->
 </div>
 <div>
<!-- text of second added poem here -->
 </div>
 <div>
<!-- text of third added poem here -->
 </div>
 <div>
<!-- text of fourth added poem here -->
 </div>
 <anchor xml:id="P025"/>
 <div>
<!-- more text here -->
 </div>
</body>
Note
Both the beginning and the end of the added material must be marked; the beginning by the addSpan element itself, the end by the spanTo attribute.

<additional>

<additional> groups additional information, combining bibliographic information about a manuscript, or surrogate copies of it with curatorial or administrative information. 1.7 Additional information
Module msdescription
Used by
May contain
core: listBibl
msdescription: adminInfo surrogates
Declaration
                        element 
                        additional
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( adminInfo?, surrogates?, listBibl? )
}
Example
<additional>
 <adminInfo>
  <recordHist>
<!-- record history here -->
  </recordHist>
  <custodialHist>
<!-- custodial history here -->
  </custodialHist>
 </adminInfo>
 <surrogates>
<!-- information about surrogates here -->
 </surrogates>
 <listBibl>
<!-- full bibliography here -->
 </listBibl>
</additional>

<additions>

<additions> contains a description of any significant additions found within a manuscript, such as marginalia or other annotations. 1.5.2 Writing, Decoration, and Other Notations
Module msdescription
Used by
May contain
Declaration
element additions { att.global.attributes, macro.specialPara }
Example
<additions>
 <p>There are several marginalia in this manuscript. Some consist of
   single characters and others are figurative. On 8v is to be found a drawing of
   a mans head wearing a hat. At times sentences occurs: On 5v:
 <q xml:lang="is">Her er skrif andres isslendin</q>,
   on 19r: <q xml:lang="is">þeim go</q>,
   on 21r: <q xml:lang="is">amen med aund ok munn halla rei knar hofud summu all huad
     batar þad mælgi ok mal</q>,
   On 21v: some runic letters and the sentence <q xml:lang="la">aue maria gracia plena dominus</q>.</p>
</additions>

<addrLine>

<addrLine> (address line) contains one line of a postal address. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CO.html#CONAAD http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD24 http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CO.html#COBICOI
Module core
Used by
May contain
Declaration
element addrLine { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }
Example
<address>
 <addrLine>Computing Center, MC 135</addrLine>
 <addrLine>P.O. Box 6998</addrLine>
 <addrLine>Chicago, IL</addrLine>
 <addrLine>60680 USA</addrLine>
</address>
Note
Addresses may be encoded either as a sequence of lines, or using any sequence of component elements from the model.addrPart class. Other non-postal forms of address, such as telephone numbers or email, should not be included within an <address> element directly but may be wrapped within an addrLine if they form part of the printed address in some source text.

<adminInfo>

<adminInfo> (administrative information) contains information about the present custody and availability of the manuscript, and also about the record description itself. 1.7.1 Administrative information
Module msdescription
Used by
May contain
core: note
header: availability
msdescription: custodialHist recordHist
Declaration
                        element 
                        adminInfo
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( recordHist?, availability?, custodialHist?, model.noteLike? )
}
Example
<adminInfo>
 <recordHist>
  <source>Record created <date>1 Aug 2004</date>
  </source>
 </recordHist>
 <availability>
  <p>Until 2015 permission to photocopy some materials from this
     collection has been limited at the request of the donor. Please ask repository staff for details
     if you are interested in obtaining photocopies from Series 1:
     Correspondence.</p>
 </availability>
 <custodialHist>
  <p>Collection donated to the Manuscript Library by the Estate of
     Edgar Holden in 1993. Donor number: 1993-034.</p>
 </custodialHist>
</adminInfo>

<affiliation>

<affiliation> (affiliation) contains an informal description of a person's present or past affiliation with some organization, for example an employer or sponsor. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CC.html#CCAHPA
Module namesdates
In addition to global attributes att.editLike (@cert, @resp, @evidence, @source) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max)) ) att.datable (att.datable.w3c (@period, @when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) att.naming (@nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        affiliation
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attribute.cert,
   att.editLike.attribute.resp,
   att.editLike.attribute.evidence,
   att.editLike.attribute.source,
   att.dimensions.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<affiliation>Junior project officer for the US <name type="org">National Endowment for
   the Humanities</name>
</affiliation>
<affiliation notAfter="1960-01-01" notBefore="1957-02-28">Paid up member of the
<orgName>Australian Journalists Association</orgName>
</affiliation>
Note
If included, the name of an organization may be tagged using either the name element as above, or the more specific orgName element.

<age>

<age> (age) specifies the age of a person.
Module namesdates
In addition to global attributes att.editLike (@cert, @resp, @evidence, @source) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max)) ) att.datable (att.datable.w3c (@period, @when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to))
value supplies a numeric code representing the age or age group
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:nonNegativeInteger
Note
This attribute may be used to complement a more detailed discussion of a person's age in the content of the element
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        age
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attribute.cert,
   att.editLike.attribute.resp,
   att.editLike.attribute.evidence,
   att.editLike.attribute.source,
   att.dimensions.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   attribute value { xsd:nonNegativeInteger }?,
   macro.phraseSeq.limited
}
Example
<age value="2" notAfter="1986">under 20 in the early eighties</age>

<altIdentifier>

<altIdentifier> (alternative identifier) contains an alternative or former structured identifier used for a manuscript, such as a former catalogue number. 1.2 The Manuscript Identifier
Module msdescription
In addition to global attributes att.typed (@type, @subtype)
type characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Status Required
Datatype xsd:Name
Legal values are:
former
former catalogue or shelf number
system
former system identifier (Manuscriptorium specific)
partial
identifier of a previously distinct item
internal
internal project identifier
other
unspecified [Default]
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        altIdentifier
{
   att.global.attributes,
   attribute type { "former" | "system" | "partial" | "internal" | "other" },
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   (
      model.placeNamePart_sequenceOptional,
      institution?,
      repository?,
      collection?,
      idno,
      note?
   )
}
Example
<altIdentifier>
 <settlement>San Marino</settlement>
 <repository>Huntington Library</repository>
 <idno>MS.El.26.C.9</idno>
</altIdentifier>
Note
An identifying number of some kind must be supplied if known; if it is not known, this should be stated.

<am>

<am> (abbreviation marker) contains a sequence of letters or signs present in an abbreviation which are omitted or replaced in the expanded form of the abbreviation. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/PH.html#PHAB
Module transcr
In addition to global attributes att.editLike (@cert, @resp, @evidence, @source) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max)) )
Used by
May contain
gaiji: g
Declaration
                        element 
                        am
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attribute.cert,
   att.editLike.attribute.resp,
   att.editLike.attribute.evidence,
   att.editLike.attribute.source,
   att.dimensions.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | model.pPart.transcriptional )*
}
Example
do you
<abbr>Mr<am>.</am>
</abbr> Jones?

<anchor>

<anchor> (anchor point) attaches an identifier to a point within a text, whether or not it corresponds with a textual element. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/TS.html#TSSAPA http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/SA.html#SACS
Module linking
In addition to global attributes att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Used by
May contain Empty element
Declaration
element anchor { att.global.attributes, att.typed.attributes, empty }
Example
<s>The anchor is he<anchor xml:id="A234"/>re somewhere.</s>
<s>Help me find it.<ptr target="#A234"/>
</s>
Note
On this element, the global xml:id attribute must be supplied to specify an identifier for the point at which this element occurs within a document. The value used may be chosen freely provided that it is unique within the document and is a syntactically valid name. There is no requirement for values containing numbers to be in sequence.

<author>

<author> in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of the author(s), personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CO.html#COBICOR http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD21
Module core
In addition to global attributes att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        author
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<author>British Broadcasting Corporation</author>
<author>La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de (1634–1693)</author>
<author>Anonymous</author>
<author>Bill and Melinda Gates</author>
<author>
 <persName>Beaumont, Francis</persName> and
<persName>John Fletcher</persName>
</author>
<author>
 <orgName key="BBC">British Broadcasting
   Corporation</orgName>: Radio 3 Network
</author>
Note
Particularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use a generally recognized name authority file to supply the content for this element. The attributes key or ref may also be used to reference canonical information about the author(s) intended from any appropriate authority, such as a library catalogue or online resource.
In the case of a broadcast, use this element for the name of the company or network responsible for making the broadcast.
Where an author is unknown or unspecified, this element may contain text such as Unknown or Anonymous. When the appropriate TEI modules are in use, it may also contain detailed tagging of the names used for people, organizations or places, in particular where multiple names are given.

<authority>

<authority> (release authority) supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for making an electronic file available, other than a publisher or distributor. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD24
Module header
Used by
May contain
Declaration
element authority { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq.limited }
Example
<authority>John Smith</authority>

<availability>

<availability> supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, etc. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD24
Module header
In addition to global attributes att.declarable (@default)
status supplies a code identifying the current availability of the text.
Status Required
Legal values are:
free
unknown
[Default]
restricted
Used by
May contain
core: p
Declaration
                        element 
                        availability
{
   attribute status { "free" | "unknown" | "restricted" },
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   model.pLike+
}
Example
<availability status="restricted">
 <p>Available for academic research purposes only.</p>
</availability>
<availability status="free">
 <p>In the public domain</p>
</availability>
<availability status="restricted">
 <p>Available under licence from the publishers.</p>
</availability>
Note
A consistent format should be adopted

<back>

<back> (back matter) contains any appendixes, etc. following the main part of a text. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/DS.html#DSBACK http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/DS.html#DS
Module textstructure
In addition to global attributes att.declaring (@decls)
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        back
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   (
      ( model.frontPart | model.pLike.front | model.global )*,
      (
         (
            (
               ( model.div1Like ),
               ( model.frontPart | model.div1Like | model.global )*
            )
          | (
               ( model.divLike ),
               ( model.frontPart | model.divLike | model.global )*
            )
         )?
      ),
      ( ( ( model.divBottomPart ), ( model.divBottomPart | model.global )* )? )
   )
}
Example
<back>
 <div1 type="appendix">
  <head>The Golden Dream or, the Ingenuous Confession</head>
  <p>To shew the Depravity of human Nature </p>
 </div1>
 <div1 type="epistle">
  <head>A letter from the Printer, which he desires may be inserted</head>
  <salute>Sir.</salute>
  <p>I have done with your Copy, so you may return it to the Vatican, if you please </p>
 </div1>
 <div1 type="advert">
  <head>The Books usually read by the Scholars of Mrs Two-Shoes are these and are sold at Mr
     Newbery's at the Bible and Sun in St Paul's Church-yard.</head>
  <list>
   <item n="1">The Christmas Box, Price 1d.</item>
   <item n="2">The History of Giles Gingerbread, 1d.</item>
   <item n="42">A Curious Collection of Travels, selected from the Writers of all Nations,
       10 Vol, Pr. bound 1l.</item>
  </list>
 </div1>
 <div1 type="advert">
  <head>
   <hi rend="center">By the KING's Royal Patent,</hi> Are sold by J. NEWBERY, at the
     Bible and Sun in St. Paul's Church-Yard.</head>
  <list>
   <item n="1">Dr. James's Powders for Fevers, the Small-Pox, Measles, Colds, &amp;c.
       2s. 6d</item>
   <item n="2">Dr. Hooper's Female Pills, 1s.</item>
  </list>
 </div1>
</back>
Note
The content model of back matter is identical to that of front matter, reflecting the facts of cultural history.

<bibl>

<bibl> (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CO.html#COBITY http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD3 http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CC.html#CCAS2
Module core
In addition to global attributes att.declarable (@default) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        bibl
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   (
      text
    | model.gLikemodel.highlightedmodel.pPart.datamodel.pPart.editmodel.segLikemodel.ptrLikemodel.biblPartmodel.global
   )*
}
Example
<bibl>Blain, Clements and Grundy: Feminist Companion to Literature in English (Yale,
1990)</bibl>
Example
<bibl>
 <title level="a">The Interesting story of the Children in the Wood</title>. In
<author>Victor E Neuberg</author>, <title>The Penny Histories</title>.
<publisher>OUP</publisher>
 <date>1968</date>.
</bibl>
Note
Contains phrase-level elements, together with any combination of elements from the biblPart class

<biblScope>

<biblScope> (scope of citation) defines the scope of a bibliographic reference, for example as a list of page numbers, or a named subdivision of a larger work. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CO.html#COBICOI
Module core
In addition to global attributes In addition to global attributes
type identifies the type of information conveyed by the element, e.g. columns, pages, volume.
Status Required
Datatype xsd:Name
Legal values are:
volume
pages
[Default]
from specifies the starting point of the range of units indicated by the type attribute.
Status Optional
Datatype token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" }
to specifies the end-point of the range of units indicated by the type attribute.
Status Optional
Datatype token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" }
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        biblScope
{
   attribute type { "volume" | "pages" },
   attribute from { token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" } }?,
   attribute to { token { pattern = "(\p{L}|\p{N}|\p{P}|\p{S})+" } }?,
   att.global.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<biblScope>pp 12–34</biblScope>
<biblScope type="pp" from="12" to="34"/>
<biblScope type="vol">II</biblScope>
<biblScope type="pp">12</biblScope>

<binding>

<binding> contains a description of one binding, i.e. type of covering, boards, etc. applied to a manuscript. 1.5.3.1 Binding Descriptions
Module msdescription
In addition to global attributes att.datable (att.datable.w3c (@period, @when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to))
contemporary specifies whether or not the binding is contemporary with the majority of its contents
Status Optional
Datatype xsd:boolean | "unknown" | "inapplicable"
Note
The value true indicates that the binding is contemporaneous with its contents; the value false that it is not. The value unknown should be used when the date of either binding or manuscript is unknown
Used by
May contain
core: p
msdescription: condition decoNote
Declaration
                        element 
                        binding
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   attribute contemporary { xsd:boolean | "unknown" | "inapplicable" }?,
   ( model.pLike | condition | decoNote )+
}
Example
<binding contemporary="true">
 <p>Contemporary blind stamped leather over wooden boards with evidence of a fore edge clasp
   closing to the back cover.</p>
</binding>
Example
<bindingDesc>
 <binding contemporary="false">
  <p>Quarter bound by the Phillipps' binder, Bretherton, with his sticker on the front
     pastedown.</p>
 </binding>
 <binding contemporary="false">
  <p>Rebound by an unknown 19th c. company; edges cropped and gilt.</p>
 </binding>
</bindingDesc>

<bindingDesc>

<bindingDesc> (binding description) describes the present and former bindings of a manuscript, either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of distinct binding elements, one for each binding of the manuscript. 1.5.3.1 Binding Descriptions
Module msdescription
Used by
May contain
core: p
msdescription: binding condition decoNote
Declaration
                        element 
                        bindingDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( ( model.pLike | decoNote | condition )+ | binding+ )
}
Example
<bindingDesc>
 <p>Sewing not visible; tightly rebound over
   19th-cent. pasteboards, reusing panels of 16th-cent. brown leather with
   gilt tooling à la fanfare, Paris c. 1580-90, the centre of each
   cover inlaid with a 17th-cent. oval medallion of red morocco tooled in
   gilt (perhaps replacing the identifying mark of a previous owner); the
   spine similarly tooled, without raised bands or title-piece; coloured
   endbands; the edges of the leaves and boards gilt.Boxed.</p>
</bindingDesc>

<birth>

<birth> (birth) contains information about a person's birth, such as its date and place. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/CC.html#CCAHPA
Module namesdates
In addition to global attributes att.editLike (@cert, @resp, @evidence, @source) (att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max)) ) att.datable (att.datable.w3c (@period, @when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) att.naming (@nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref))
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        birth
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.editLike.attribute.cert,
   att.editLike.attribute.resp,
   att.editLike.attribute.evidence,
   att.editLike.attribute.source,
   att.dimensions.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<birth>Before 1920, Midlands region.</birth>
Example
<birth when="1960-12-10">In a small cottage near <name type="place">Aix-la-Chapelle</name>,
early in the morning of <date>10 Dec 1960</date>
</birth>

<bloc>

<bloc> (bloc) contains the name of a geo-political unit consisting of two or more nation states or countries. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/ND.html#NDPLAC
Module namesdates
In addition to global attributes att.naming (@nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.datable (att.datable.w3c (@period, @when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to))
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        bloc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}
Example
<bloc type="union">the European Union</bloc>
<bloc type="continent">Africa</bloc>

<body>

<body> (text body) contains the whole body of a single unitary text, excluding any front or back matter. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/DS.html#DS
Module textstructure
In addition to global attributes att.declaring (@decls)
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        body
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declaring.attributes,
   (
      model.global*,
      ( ( model.divTop ), ( model.global | model.divTop )* )?,
      ( ( model.divGenLike ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )?,
      (
         ( ( model.divLike ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
       | ( ( model.div1Like ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
       | (
            ( ( model.common ), model.global* )+,
            (
               ( ( model.divLike ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
             | ( ( model.div1Like ), ( model.global | model.divGenLike )* )+
            )?
         )
      ),
      ( ( model.divBottom ), model.global* )*
   )
}
Example
<body>
 <l>Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard</l>
 <l>metudæs maecti end his modgidanc</l>
 <l>uerc uuldurfadur sue he uundra gihuaes</l>
 <l>eci dryctin or astelidæ</l>
 <l>he aerist scop aelda barnum</l>
 <l>heben til hrofe haleg scepen.</l>
 <l>tha middungeard moncynnæs uard</l>
 <l>eci dryctin æfter tiadæ</l>
 <l>firum foldu frea allmectig</l>
 <trailer>primo cantauit Cædmon istud carmen.</trailer>
</body>

<catDesc>

<catDesc> (category description) describes some category within a taxonomy or text typology, either in the form of a brief prose description or in terms of the situational parameters used by the TEI formal textDesc. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD55
Module header
Used by
May contain
Declaration
                        element 
                        catDesc
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( text | model.limitedPhrase | model.catDescPart )*
}
Example
<catDesc>Prose reportage</catDesc>
Example
<catDesc>
 <textDesc n="novel">
  <channel mode="w">print; part issues</channel>
  <constitution type="single"/>
  <derivation type="original"/>
  <domain type="art"/>
  <factuality type="fiction"/>
  <interaction type="none"/>
  <preparedness type="prepared"/>
  <purpose type="entertain" degree="high"/>
  <purpose type="inform" degree="medium"/>
 </textDesc>
</catDesc>

<catRef>

<catRef> (category reference) specifies one or more defined categories within some taxonomy or text typology. http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/HD.html#HD43
Module header
In addition to global attributes In addition to global attributes
target identifies the categories concerned
Status Required
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of  xsd:anyURI separated by whitespace
Values A series of one or more space-separated pointers