Names, People, and Places

1. What's in a name?

  • We've already met <name> and <rs> for any form of name or referring string.
  • The namesdates module also provides specialisations of these: <persName>, <placeName>, and <orgName>
  • Each can be further decomposed
  • They can also be associated with a named entity
  • (Names are also entities)

2. Personal Names

For example...
  • <persName> (personal name) a noun referring to a person ... equivalent to <name type="person">
  • <surname> a family (inherited) name
  • <forename> a forename, given or baptismal name
  • <roleName> a name component indicating a particular role or position in society
  • <addName> (additional name) nickname, epithet, alias, or any other descriptive phrase used within a personal name
  • <nameLink> a connecting phrase or link used within a name but not regarded as part of it
<persName>  <forename type="first">Inęs</forename>  <forename type="matronymic">Barroca</forename>  <surname>Rahtz</surname> </persName>

3. Names as referents (1)

In a text we might find the same person referred to on different occasions in any number of different ways:
...<persName>Clara Schumann</persName>.... <persName>Clara</persName> .... <persName>Frau Schumann</persName>

All of these names refer to the same entity

We can use an attribute on any naming element to specify which entity is being referenced:
  • @key if we are supplying an externally-defined code for the entity
  • @ref if we are pointing to a definition of the entity

4. Names as referents (2)

For example:-
...<persName ref="#CS">Clara Schumann</persName>.... <persName ref="#CS">Clara</persName> .... <persName key="CS123">Frau Schumann</persName> <!-- ... elsewhere --> <person xml:id="CSsex="2">  <persName xml:lang="de">   <forename type="first">Clara</forename>   <forename type="middle">Josephine</forename>   <surname type="maiden">Wieck</surname>   <surname type="married">Schumann</surname>  </persName> </person>

5. The thing itself (1)

TEI provides special-purpose elements for maintaining structured information about named entities (as well as their names):
  • <person>, <place>, <event>
  • may be grouped into <listPerson>, <listPlace>, (and soon <listEvent>)
  • relationships can also be modelled, explicitly using <relation> or implicitly by context
<person xml:id="VM1893sex="1">  <persName xml:lang="ru">Владимир Владимирович Маяковский</persName>  <persName xml:lang="fr">Wladimir Maďakowski</persName>  <birth when="1893-07-19">7 July (OS) 1893, <placeName ref="#BGDTxml:lang="en">Baghdati, Georgia</placeName>  </birth>  <death when="1930-04-14"/>  <occupation>Poet and playwright, among the foremost representatives of    early-20th century Russian Futurism.</occupation> <!-- ... --> </person>

6. Traits, states, and events

The scope of elements one might record for a named entity is large. The TEI provides three generic elements, and some specific ones.

We identify three main classes of information:
  • characteristics or traits which do not, by and large, change over time
  • characteristics or states which hold true only at a specific time
  • events or incidents which may lead to a change of state or, less frequently, trait

For a person, typical traits are such things as <faith>, <sex>, <socEcStatus>; typical states are such things as <occupation>, <residence>, <education>; typical events are such things as <birth> and <death>.

7. Personal Relationships

  • <relationGrp> (relation group) provides information about relationships identified amongst people, places, and organizations
  • <relation> (relationship) describes any kind of relationship or linkage amongst a specified group of participants
    @name
    supplies a name for the kind of relationship of which this is an instance
    @active
    identifies the 'active' participants in a non-mutual relationship, or all the participants in a mutual one
    @mutual
    supplies a list of participants amongst all of whom the relationship holds equally
    @passive
    identifies the ‘passive’ participants in a non-mutual relationship

8. Example

<person xml:id="jsbachsex="1">  <persName>Johann Sebastian Bach</persName> </person> <person xml:id="cdbachsex="2">  <persName>Catharina Dorothea Bach</persName> </person> <person xml:id="ghbachsex="1">  <persName>Gottfried Heinrich Bach</persName> </person> <!--….--> <relationGrp type="childrensubtype="first-marriage">  <relation name="parentactive="#jsbachpassive="#cdbach"/> <!--….--> </relationGrp> <relationGrp type="childrensubtype="second-marriage">  <relation name="parentactive="#jsbachpassive="#ghbach"/> <!--….--> </relationGrp>

9. Other kinds of entity

  • <org>: a named collection of people regarded as a single unit, such as a business, institution, or tribe.
  • <place>: a named location of any kind (including mythological and non-terrestrial places)
  • These can be grouped in the same way (using <listOrg> or <listPlace>), and also have states, traits, and events.

10. Places

  • Places can be identified solely in terms of geographical features or locations, e.g.
    <place>  <placeName>   <geogFeat>mount</geogFeat>   <geogName>Sinai</geogName>  </placeName> </place>
  • More usually, they are identified in geo-political terms, using
    • adminstrative units such as <bloc>, <country>, <region>, <settlement>, <district>
    • physical location using <geo> and <offset>
  • Note that all these things are traits — they may change over time

11. For example: Mayakovsky's birth place

<place xml:id="BGDT">  <placeName xml:lang="ka">ბაღდათი</placeName>  <placeName xml:lang="en">Baghdati</placeName>  <placeName notAfter="1990notBefore="1940"> Mayakovsky</placeName>  <location type="geopolitical">   <country>Georgia</country>   <region type="geog">Imereti</region>  </location>  <location type="physical">   <offset>West of</offset>   <placeName>    <geogFeat>River</geogFeat>    <geogName>Khanistskali</geogName>   </placeName>   <geo>42.102298,42.832947</geo>  </location>  <population when="2007">   <p>4,700 people</p>  </population> </place>

12. Places can be nested (unlike people)

<place xml:id="LT">  <country>Lithuania</country>  <country xml:lang="lt">Lietuva</country>  <place xml:id="LT-VN">   <settlement>Vilnius</settlement>  </place>  <place xml:id="LT-KA">   <settlement>Kaunas</settlement>  </place> </place>

13. Sources

Responsibility and uncertainty about the sources can be asserted by using attributes from the att.editLike class:
<org xml:id="MXYtype="triberesp="#herodotus">  <orgName>The Maxyans</orgName>  <country>Libya</country>  <desc>According to Herodotus, they were a west Libyan    tribe who said that they were descended from the men    of Troy.</desc> </org>

14. Dates and Periods

The support for dates in TEI P5 has concentrated on enabling greater use of international standards (W3C and ISO)
  • <date> contains a date in any format
  • <time> contains a phrase defining a time of day in any format

15. Example

<place xml:id="leipzig-univ">  <placeName>University of Leipzig</placeName>  <event type="foundation">   <desc>The university was founded on <date when="1409-12-02">December 2, 1409</date>.   </desc>  </event> </place>

16. W3C Date Formats

Thanks to the mapping to W3C (att.datable.w3c) and ISO date formats, automatic processing and validation of expression of dates and times are now allowed

att.datable.w3c provides attributes for normalization of elements that contain datable events using the W3C datatypes
@when
supplies the value of a date or time in a standard form
@notBefore
specifies the earliest possible date for the event in standard form
@notAfter
specifies the latest possible date for the event in standard form
@from
indicates the starting point of the period in standard form
@to
indicates the ending point of the period in standard form

The W3C standard form for dates is YYYY-MM-DD.

17. Example

<place xml:id="leipzig-univ2">  <placeName>University of Leipzig</placeName> <!--…-->  <event type="openingnotBefore="1409-09-09">   <desc>The <foreign xml:lang="la">Alma mater        Lipsiensis</foreign> opened in 1409, after it      had been officially endorsed by Pope Alexander      V in his Bull of Acknowledgment on      (September 9 of that year).</desc>  </event> </place>

18. ISO Date Fomats

For some uses the subset of ISO 8601 which is used by the W3C might not be enough, so the TEI provides an optional att.datable.iso class to give the following attributes if needed:
@when-iso
the value of a date or time in a standard form
@notBefore-iso
the earliest possible date for the event
@notAfter-iso
the latest possible date for the event
@from-iso
the starting point of the period
@to-iso
the ending point of the period
@dur-iso
the length of this element in time

The ISO standard, for example, allows specifying dates and durations with a precision by omitting some digits to the left, while the W3C datatypes require in most cases conformance to a stricter precision.

19. Example

<p>He arrived <time when="12:00:00">around noon</time>. He arrived <time when-iso="12">around noon</time>.</p>

20. Time Periods and Relative Chronology

Time periods and relative chronology can also be defined.

<encodingDesc>  <classDecl>   <taxonomy xml:id="periods">    <category xml:id="hellenistic">     <catDesc>      <ref        target="http://www.wikipedia.com/wiki/Hellenistic"> Hellenistic</ref>. Commonly treated as <date notBefore="-0323notAfter="-0031"/>. </catDesc>    </category> <!--…-->   </taxonomy>  </classDecl> </encodingDesc> <!--…--> <p> The city was built near a marble quarry which was extensively exploited in the <date period="#hellenistic">Hellenistic</date> and <date period="#roman">Roman</date> periods.</p>